Joel Trachtman

Joel P. Trachtman

Mugar 252B
160 Packard Avenue, Medford, MA 02155
Research/Areas of Interest:

International trade law; International economic integration; International investment law; International financial law; Economic analysis of international law; International business and finance regulation


  • J.D., Harvard Law School
  • BA.., Political Science, Columbia College
  • General Course Certificate, International Relations, London School of Economics and Political Science


Joel P. Trachtman is Henry J. Braker Professor of Law at The Fletcher School of Tufts University. Recent books include "The Future of International Law: Global Government" (Cambridge 2013), "The Tools of Argument" (Createspace 2013), "The International Law of Economic Migration: Toward the Fourth Freedom" (Upjohn Institute 2009); "Ruling the World: Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance" (Cambridge 2009); "Developing Countries in the WTO Legal System" (Oxford 2009); and "The Economic Structure of International Law" (Harvard 2008).

Professor Trachtman has served as a member of the Boards of the American Journal of International law, the European Journal of International Law, the Journal of International Economic Law, the Cambridge Review of International Affairs, and the Singapore Yearbook of International Law. He has consulted for a number of governments and international organizations, including the United Nations, the World Bank, and the OECD. From 1998 to 2001, he was academic dean of The Fletcher School, and during 2000 and 2001, he served as dean ad interim. He has been a visiting professor at Basel, Hamburg, Harvard, and Hong Kong.

He graduated in 1980 from Harvard Law School, where he served as editor in chief of the Harvard International Law Journal, and practiced in New York and Hong Kong for 9 years before entering academia.

Areas of expertise

Economic Development
Globalization & Trade
History & Diplomacy
International Business
International Finance & Monetary Policy
International Law & Organizations
International Politics
Regional Studies

Professional Activities

  • Board of Editors, American Journal of International Law, 2001 – 2011.
  • Board of Editors, Journal of International Economic Law, 2000 – present.
  • Advisor, American Law Institute Project on Legal and Economic Principles of World Trade Law, 2001-present.
  • Member, Advisory Board, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 2006 – present.
  • Member, Advisory Board, European Journal of International Law, 2000 – 2012.
  • Member, Board of Editors, Singapore Yearbook of International Law, 2005 – 2010.
  • Co-Editor, Series on International Law and Economics, Springer, 2014 – present.
  • Referee for International Organization, International Review of Law and Economics, World Trade Review, Economics and Politics, Cambridge University Press, and Oxford University Press.
  • Distinguished Research Professor of International Economic Law, Swansea University, 2013 - present.
  • Director, Hitachi Center for Technology and International Affairs, 2009 - 2011.
  • U.S. Member of International Trade Law Committee of International Law Association, 2009 - 2014.
  • Visiting Professor of Law, Hamburg University, June 2011.
  • Visiting Professor of Law, Hong Kong University, November 2009.
  • Visiting Professor of Law, University of Basel, Summer 2007.
  • Nomura Visiting Professor of International Financial Systems, Harvard Law School, 2004.
  • Special International Trade Counsel, Massachusetts Office of International Trade and Investment, advising on international trade law implications of Burma sanctions law and other international trade law matters, April 1997 - September 1998.
  • Honorary Secretary, American Branch of International Law Association, 1994 - 1998.tember 1998.
  • Chairman, American Society of International Law International Economic Law Interest Group, 1995 - 1997.
  • Vice-Chairman, American Society of International Law International Economic Law Interest Group, 1993 - 1995.
  • Member, Program Committee for American Society of International Law 1996 Annual Meeting.
  • Member, American Bar Association Ad Hoc Subcommittee to Prepare Model Amicus Brief on Application of International Law by U.S. Courts, 1995 - 1996.
  • Chairman, American Bar Association Subcommittee on Emerging Capital Markets, 1994 - 1995.
  • Missions to Sri Lanka under auspices of Agency for International Development, providing advice on securities regulation, August 1993, August 1994.
  • Chairman, American Bar Association Central and Eastern European Law Initiative, Advisory Committee to Bulgaria on drafting and implementing securities regulation, 1992 - 1994.
  • Chairman, American Bar Association Subcommittee on Law and Regulation in Developing Countries, 1991 – 1994.
  • Member, American Bar Association Working Group on U.S. Foreign Assistance Programs, March 1993 – September 1993.
  • Chief Reporter, International Law Association (American Branch) Committee on International Law in Domestic Courts, 1992 - 1993.
  • Advisor to Guatemala on revisions to its legal infrastructure for trade, investment and finance, 1992.
  • Member of committee advising Boston University School of Law Graduate Banking Program on curricular changes, April 1992.
  • Advisor to Clinton/Gore campaign on legal issues relating to trade and the environment, August and September, 1992.
  • Principal draftsman for American Bar Association Committee on International Investment and Development of advice to Albania regarding foreign investment law. April and May, 1992.
  • United Nations Centre for Transnational Corporations/ Association of South-East Asian Nations First Training Course on Financial Institution Management and Supervision, Manila, August, 1989. Led workshop entitled “Securities Segment of Capital Markets--Introduction to Operational and Regulatory Aspects.”
  • Editor in chief of Harvard International Law Journal, 1979 – 1980

Other Affiliations

  • International Business Relations Program
  • Hitachi Center on Technology and International Relations

Courses taught

Selected Publications and Presentations


International Legal Control of Domestic Administrative Action, 17:4 Journal of International Economic Law 753 (2014).

Reports of the Death of Treaty are Premature, but Customary International Law May Have Outlived its Usefulness, AJIL Unbound (on-line discussion forum of American Journal of International Law), April 29, 2014.

TBT, SPS, and GATT: A Map of the WTO Law of Domestic Regulation (with Gabrielle Marceau), 48 Journal of World Trade 352 (2014).

The Economic Structure of International Organizations, 15 Chicago Journal of International Law 493 (2014).

Philippines—Taxes on Distilled Spirits: Toward a Border Tax Adjustment? 12 World Trade Review 297 (2013) (with Damien Neven).

Review Essay: The Anti-Globalization Paradox: Freedom to Enter into International Law is Real Freedom (review of Dani Rodrik, The Globalization Paradox) 36 The World Economy 1442 (2013).

Who Cares About Human Rights? The Supply and Demand of International Human Rights Law, 44 NYU Journal of International Law and Politics 851 (2012).

Fragmentation, Coherence, and Synergy in International Law, 2 Transnational Legal Theory 505 (2011).

Incomplete Harmonization Contracts in International Economic Law: Report of the Panel, China—Measures Affecting the Protection and Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights, 10 World Trade Review 63-86 (2011) (with Kamal Saggi).

Interpretation and Institutional Choice at the WTO, 52 Virginia Journal of International Law 103 (2011) (with Gregory Shaffer) (subject of discussion on Opinio Juris blog).

The Crisis of International Law, 44 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law (2011).

Review Essay: The Law Market, by Erin A. O'Hara and Larry E. Ribstein (Oxford, 2009), forthcoming in American Journal of International Law.

Continued Suspense: WTO Discipline of Domestic Regulation and the Relationship Between Non-Discrimination and Risk Assessment, 9 (Special Issue 1) World Trade Review 151 (2010) (with Bernard Hoekman); reprinted in The WTO Case Law of 2008: Legal and Economic Analysis (H. Horn and P. Mavroidis, eds. 2010).

International Law and Domestic Political Coalitions: The Grand Theory of Compliance with International Law, 11 Chicago Journal of International Law (2010).

Persistent Objectors, Cooperation, and the Utility of Customary International Law, 21 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 221 (2010).

Review Essay: The Law Market, by Erin A. O’Hara and Larry E. Ribstein, 104 American Journal of International Law 140 (2010).

The International Law of Financial Crisis: Spillovers, Subsidiarity, Fragmentation, and Cooperation, 13:3 Journal of International Economic Law 719-742 (2010).

Book Review: The Genesis of the GATT by Douglas A. Irwin, Petros C. Mavroidis, and Alan O. Sykes, 8 World Trade Review (2009).

Book Review: The Perils of Global Legalism, by Eric A. Posner (Chicago, 2009), 20:4 European Journal of International Law 1263 (2009).

Brazil—Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres: A Balancing Act, 8 (Special Issue 1) World Trade Review 85 (2009) (with Chad Bown).

Rational Choice and Deliberation: Comment, 165:1 Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 90 (2009).

Responding to National Concerns in Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law (Daniel Bethlehem, Donald McRae, Rodney Neufeld and Isabelle van Damme, eds. 2009) (with Gabrielle Marceau).

Subsidization, Price Suppression, and Expertise: Causation and Precision in Upland Cotton (with André Sapir), 7 (Special Issue 1) World Trade Review 183 (2008).

"Canada-Wheat: Discrimination, Non-Commercial Considerations, and the Right to Regulate Through State Trading Enterprises (with Bernard Hoekman)" 7 (Special Issue 1) World Trade Review 45 (2008).

Measuring the Shadow of the Future (with George Norman), 2008:1 Illinois Law Review.

Embedding Mutual Recognition at the WTO, 14:5 Journal of European Public Policy 780 (2007).

Regulatory Jurisdiction and the WTO, 10 Journal of International Economic Law 3 (2007).

The WTO Cathedral, 43 Stanford Journal of International Law 127 (2007).

Trachtman, Joel P. "The World Trading System, the International Legal System and Multilevel Choice." European Law Journal 12, no. 4 (2006): 469-485.

Trachtman, Joel P. "The Constitutions of the WTO." European Journal of International Law 17, no. 3 (2006): 623-646.

Welcome to Cosmopolis, World of Boundless Opportunity, 39 Cornell International Law Journal 477 (2006).

Trachtman, Joel P and George Norman. "The Customary International Law Game." American Journal of International Law 99, no. 3 (2005): 541-580.

International Decisions--United States: Measures Affecting the Cross-Border Supply of Betting and Gambling Services, 99 American Journal of International Law 861 (2005).

Trachtman, Joel P. "Book Review: "Conflict of Norms in Public International Law: How WTO Law Relates to Other Rules of International Law" By Joost Pauwelyn." American Journal of International Law, 2005, 855.

Trachtman, Joel P. "Changing the Rules: Constitutional Moments of the WTO." Harvard International Review 26, no. 2 (2004): 44-48.

Trachtman, Joel P and Amelia Porges. "Robert Hudec and domestic regulation: the resurrection of aim and effects." Journal of World Trade 37, no. 4 (2003): 783-799.

Trachtman, Joel P. "Notes and Comments: Robert E. Hudec (1934-2003)." American Journal of International Law 97, no. 2 (2003): 311-313.

Trachtman, Joel P and Philip Moremen. "Costs and Benefits of Private Participation in WTO Dispute Settlement: Whose Right Is It Anyway?." Harvard International Law Journal 44, no. 1 (2003): 221-250.

Trachtman, Joel P. "Legal Aspects of a Poverty Agenda at the WTO: Trade Law and 'Global Apartheid'." Journal of International Economic Law 6, no. 1 (2003).

Trachtman, Joel P. "Toward Open Recognition? Standardization and Regional Integration under Article XXIV of GATT." Journal of International Economic Law 6, no. 2 (2003): 459-492.

Review Essay: The Law and Economics of Global Justice, 96 American Journal of International Law 984 (2002).

Transcending “Trade and . . .”–an Institutional Perspective, 96 American Journal of International Law 77 (2002) (commissioned paper for symposium).

Economic Analysis of Prescriptive Jurisdiction and Choice of Law, 42 Virginia Journal of International Law 1 (2001).

Regulatory Competition and Regulatory Jurisdiction, 3 Journal of International Economic Law 331 (2000).

Bananas, Direct Effect and Compliance, 10 European Journal of International Law 655 (1999).

John Jackson and the Founding of the World Trade Organization: Empiricism, Theory and Institutional Imagination, 20 Michigan Journal of International Law 175 (1999) (commissioned paper for festschrift).

The Domain of WTO Dispute Resolution, 40 Harvard International Law Journal 333 (1999).

The Law and Economics of Humanitarian Law Violations in Armed Conflict (with Jeffrey Dunoff), 93 American Journal of International Law 394 (1999) (commissioned paper for symposium), reprinted with revisions in Steven Ratner & Anne-Marie Slaughter, The Methods of International Law (2004) reprinted in part in Lori Damrosch, et al., International Law (4th ed. 2001), and reprinted in part in Christopher Blakesley, et al., The International Legal System (5th ed. 2001).

The Law and Economics of International Law (with Jeffrey Dunoff), 24 Yale Journal of International Law 1 (1999), reprinted in part in Barry Carter, et al., International Law (5th ed. 2007).

Cyberspace, Sovereignty, Jurisdiction and Modernism, 5 Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 561 (1998) (commissioned paper for symposium).

Non-Actor States in U.S. Foreign Relations? The Massachusetts Burma Law, Proceedings of the 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law: The Challenge of Non-State Actors 350 (1998).

Trade and . . . Problems, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Subsidiarity, 9 European Journal of International Law 32 (1998).

Accounting Standards and Trade Disciplines: Irreconcilable Differences?, 31 Journal of World Trade 63 (1997), reprinted in revised form in Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation: Legal Problems and Political Prospects (George A. Bermann, Matthias Herdegen & Peter L. Lindseth, eds. 2000).

European Constitutionalism and its Discontents (with Joseph Weiler), 1996-97 Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business 354 (1997).

The Theory of the Firm and the Theory of the International Economic Organization: Toward Comparative Institutional Analysis, 17 Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business 470 (1997).

The International Economic Law Revolution, 17 University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law 33 (1996) (commissioned paper for symposium).

Foreign Investment, Regulation and Expropriation: A Debtor's Jubilee?, 82 Proceedings of the American Society of International Law 103 (1995).

Trade in Financial Services under GATS, NAFTA and the EC: A Regulatory Jurisdiction Analysis, 34 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37 (1995).

Conflict of Laws and Accuracy in the Allocation of Government Responsibility, 26 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 1 (1994).

Reflections on the Nature of the State: Sovereignty, Power and Responsibility, 20 Canada-United States Law Journal 399 (1994) (commissioned paper for symposium).

Unilateralism, Bilateralism, Regionalism, Multilateralism and Functionalism: A Comparison with Reference to Securities Regulation, 4 Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 69 (1994) (commissioned paper for symposium).

A Concept Paper on Securities Regulation for Bulgaria (chairman and principal draftsman for a committee of authors), 27 International Lawyer 837 (1993).

International Regulatory Competition, Externalization and Jurisdiction, 34 Harvard International Law Journal 47 (1993).

L'Etat, C'est Nous: Sovereignty, Economic Integration and Subsidiarity, 33 Harvard International Law Journal 459 (1992) (commissioned paper for symposium).

Recent Initiatives in International Financial Regulation and Goals of Competitiveness, Effectiveness, Consistency and Cooperation, 12 Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business 241 (1991).


Trade Law, Domestic Regulation, and Development, World Scientific 2015

The Future of International Law: Global Government, Cambridge University Press 2013. Winner of International Studies Association International Law Book Award for 2014, reviewed in Journal of International Economic Law, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Nordic Journal of International Law

The Tools of Argument, Createspace 2013

Developing Countries in the WTO Legal System (co-editor with Chantal Thomas, and chapter author), Oxford University Press 2009.

Ruling the World: Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance (co-editor with Jeffrey Dunoff, and chapter author), Cambridge University Press 2009.International Law and International Politics (editor), Ashgate Press 2008.

The International Law of Economic Migration: Toward the Fourth Freedom, Upjohn Institute 2009.

The Economic Structure of International Law, Harvard University Press 2008.

Trachtman, Joel P. The Economic Structure of International Law. Harvard University Press, 2008.

Trachtman, Joel P. The International Economic Law Revolution and the Right to Regulate. 2006.

Trachtman, Joel P. Economic Analysis of International Law. 2006.


Economic Migration and Mode 4 of GATS, in Research Handbook on International Law and Migration (Vincent Chetail and Celine Bauloz, eds. Edward Elgar 2014)

International Economic Law in the Cyber Arena, in Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace (Katharina Ziolkowski, ed. NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence 2014).

Recognition of Equivalence in International Trade in Services, in WTO, Domestic Regulation and Services Trade: Putting Principles into Practice (Aik Hoe Lim & Bart De Meester, eds. Cambridge 2014).

The Political Economy of International Migration Law, in Handbook of the International Political Economy of Trade (David Deese, ed. Edward Elgar 2014).

Unleashing Recognition in International Trade, in Building on Bali (Simon Evenett & Alejandro Jara, eds. Voxeu 2014)

Safeguards, Anti-Dumping and Subsidies in International Trade Law, in Handbook of Trade Policy for Development (Arvid Lukauskas, Robert M. Stern, & Gianni Zanini, eds. Oxford University Press 2013).

The Limits of PTAs: WTO Legal Restrictions on the Use of WTO-Plus Technical Regulations in PTAs, in Research Handbook on the WTO and Technical Barriers to Trade (Tracey Epps and Michael Trebilcock, eds. Edward Elgar 2013).

Doing Justice: The Politics and Economics of International Distributive Justice, in Global Justice and International Economic Law: Opportunities and Prospects (Cambridge University Press 2012).

Incorporating Development in a Trans-Pacific Partnership among Diverse Members, in The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) – A Quest for Twenty-first Century Trade Agreement (Cambridge University Press 2012).

Open Economy Law, in Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Politics: The State of the Art (Jeffrey Dunoff and Mark Pollack, eds. Cambridge University Press 2012).

WTO Judicial Interpretation, in The Oxford Handbook on The World Trade Organization (with Gregory Shaffer) (Oxford University Press 2012).

The WTO and Development Policy in China and India, in China, India and the International Economic Order (Cambridge University Press 2010).

Yuan to Fight About It? The WTO Legality of China’s Exchange Rate Regime, in VOXEU e-book, edited by Simon Evenett, April 20, 2010.

A Functional Approach to Global Constitutionalism (with Jeffrey Dunoff), in Ruling the World: Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance (Cambridge University Press 2009).

Constitutional Economics of the WTO, in Ruling the World: Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance, (Cambridge University Press 2009).

International Economic Law Research: A Taxonomy, in International Economic Law: The State and Future of the Discipline (Colin B. Picker, Isabella D. Bunn & Douglas W. Arner, eds., 2008).

Economic Analysis and International Law, in Economic Analysis of Law: A European Perspective (with Jeffrey Dunoff) (2006).

International Trade: Regionalism, in Handbook of International Economic Law (Edward Elgar 2006).

The World Trade Organization, entry in Encyclopedia of Globalization (Wiley Blackwell 2006).

Global Cyberterrorism, Jurisdiction, and International Organization, in The Law and Economics of Cybersecurity (Cambridge University Press 2005).

Jurisdiction in WTO Dispute Settlement, in Key Issues in WTO Dispute Settlement (Cambridge University Press 2005).

Trachtman, Joel P. ""Negotiations on Domestic Regulation and Trade Services (GATS Article VI): A Legal Analysis of Selected Current Issues."" In Reforming the World Trading System: Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance, ed. Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, 2005.

Trachtman, Joel P. "Unilateralism and Multilateralism in U.S. Human Rights Laws Affecting International Trade." In International Trade and Human Rights: Foundations and Conceptual Issues, eds. Frederick Abbott, Christine Breining-Kaufmann and Thomas Cottier, University of Michigan Press, 2005.

Addressing Regulatory Divergence Through International Standards: Lessons from the GATS, in Domestic Regulation & Service Trade Liberalization (2003).

Trachtman, Joel P. "Economic Analysis and International Law." In Economic Analysis of Law: A European Perspective, ed. Jeffrey L. Dunoff, 2003.

FDI and the Right to Regulate: Lessons from Trade Law, in United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, The Development Dimensions of FDI: Policy and Rule-Making Perspectives (2003)

Trachtman, Joel P. ""Lessons for the GATS from Existing WTO Rules on Domestic Regulation."" In Domestic Regulation & Service Trade Liberalization, eds. Aaditya Mattoo and Pierre Sauve, 2003.

Private Parties in EC-US Dispute Settlement at the WTO: Toward Intermediated Domestic Effect, in Transatlantic Economic Disputes: The EU, the US and the WTO (Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann & Mark Pollack, eds. 2003).

Trachtman, Joel P. "The Agency Model of Judging in Economic Integration: Balancing Responsibilities." In The Role of the Judge in International Trade Regulation: Experience and Lessons for the WTO, eds. Thomas Cottier and Petros C. Mavroidis, 2003.

We Have Met the Enemy and He is Us: Comment on Brian Hindley’s “What Subjects Are Suitable for WTO Agreements,” in The Political Economy of International Trade Law: Essays in Honor of Robert E. Hudec (Daniel L.M. Kennedy & James D. Southwick, eds. 2002).

International Trade as a Vector in Domestic Regulatory Reform: Discrimination, Cost-Benefit Analysis, and Negotiations, 24 Fordham International Law Journal 726 (2000), reprinted in OECD, Trade and Regulatory Reform: Insights from Country Experience (2001) and in Public Governance in the Age of Globalization (Karl-Heinz Ladeur, ed. 2004).

Part Four Summary, Comments on Papers by Robert Howse and Kalypso Nicolaïdis, Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye, Jr. and Frieder Roessler, in Efficiency, Equity and Legitimacy: The Multilateral Trading System at the Millennium (Roger B. Porter, Pierre Sauvé, Arvind Subramanian & Americo Beviglia Zampetti, eds. 2001).

Regulatory Competition and Regulatory Jurisdiction in International Securities Regulation, in Regulatory Competition and Economic Integration: Comparative Perspectives (Daniel Esty & Damien Gerardin, eds. 2001).

Assessment of the Effects of Trade Liberalization on Domestic Environmental Regulation: Toward Trade-Environment Policy Integration, in OECD, Assessing the Environmental Effects of Trade Liberalisation Agreements: Methodologies (2000).

From Policed Regulation to Managed Recognition: Mapping the Boundary in GATS (with Kalypso Nicolaidïs), in GATS 2000 (Pierre Sauvé and Robert Stern, eds. 2000).

Liberalization, Regulation, and Recognition for Services Trade (with Kalypso Nicolaidïs), in Services Trade in the Western Hemisphere (Sherry M. Stephenson, ed. 2000).

Externalities and Extraterritoriality: The Law and Economics of Prescriptive Jurisdiction, in Economic Dimensions in International Law (Alan Sykes & Jagdeep Bhandari, eds. 1997).

The Applicability of Law and Economics to Law and Development: The Case of Financial Law, in International Financial Institutions and the Emerging Markets (Joseph J. Norton and Mads Andenas, eds. 1996); reprinted in Making Development Work: Legislative Reform for Institutional Transformation and Good Governance (Ann Seidman, Robert B. Seidman & Thomas W. Wälde, eds. 1999).

International Coordination of Insolvency Proceedings: A Transatlantic Perspective, Chapter 16 in International Finance in the 1990's (Joseph J. Norton, ed. 1993).

Securities Segment of Capital Markets: Introduction to Operational and Regulatory Aspects Chapter III in Modern Management & Supervision of Financial Institutions (published by the ASEAN Committee on Finance and Banking and the United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations) (1992).


“Global Challenges — Global Law: A Symposium on the Future of International Law and Global Governance.” School of Law, Swansea University

American Branch of the International Law Association, International Law Weekend, October 25, 2014, panel on “The Transnational Trade and Investment Agreement.”

Brazil Law and Economics Association, Annual Meeting, Keynote Address, November 8, 2014, entitled “The Changing Function and Structure of International Law.”

Brazil Ministry of International Affairs, November 8, 2014, presentation entitled “The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, the WTO, and Brazil.”

Duke University School of Law, Conference on Crisis in Customary International Law, November 1, 2014, paper presentation entitled “The Obsolescence of Customary International Law.”

Florida State University, Richard B. Lillich Distinguished Lecture, October 10, 2014, entitled “The Changing Function and Structure of International Law.”


Trachtman, Joel P. "Domestic regulation is vital: Developing countries must retain policy flexibility." The Financial Express, 15 June 2005.