| Seminar Briefings
| Occasional Papers
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How Mass Atrocities End: Studies from Guatemala, Burundi, Indonesia, the Sudans, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Iraq
Edited by Bridget Conley-Zilkic (Cambridge University Press, February 2016)
Given the brutality of mass atrocities, it is no wonder that one question dominates research and policy: what can we, who are not at risk, do to prevent such violence and hasten endings? But this question skips a more fundamental question for understanding the trajectory of violence: how do mass atrocities actually end?
This volume presents an analysis of the processes, decisions, and factors that help bring about the end of mass atrocities. It includes qualitatively rich case studies from Burundi, Guatemala, Indonesia, Sudan, Bosnia, and Iraq, drawing patterns from wide-ranging data. As such, it offers a much needed correction to the popular “salvation narrative” framing mass atrocity in terms of good and evil. The nuanced, multidisciplinary approach followed here represents not only an essential tool for scholars, but also an important step forward in improving civilian protection.
To order, visit Cambridge University Press.
The Real Politics of the Horn of Africa: Money, War and the Business of Power
By Alex de Waal (Polity Press, 2015)
Alex de Waal's latest book (Polity Press, September 2015) draws on his thirty-year career in Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia, including experience as a participant in high-level peace talks, to provide a unique and compelling account of how these countries leaders run their governments, conduct their business, fight their wars and, occasionally, make peace.
De Waal shows how leaders operate on a business model, securing funds for their political budgets which they use to rent the provisional allegiances of army officers, militia commanders, tribal chiefs and party officials at the going rate. This political marketplace is eroding the institutions of government and reversing statebuilding and it is fueled in large part by oil exports, aid funds and western military assistance for counter-terrorism and peacekeeping.
The Real Politics of the Horn of Africa is a sharp and disturbing book with profound implications for international relations, development and peacemaking in the Horn of Africa and beyond.
To order, visit Polity Press.
Advocacy in Conflict: Critical Perspectives on Transnational Activism
Ed. by Alex de Waal with Jennifer Ambrose, Casey Hogle, Trisha Taneja, and Keren Yohannes (Zed Books 2015)
Conflicts in Africa, Asia and Latin America have become a common focus of advocacy by Western celebrities and NGOs. This provocative volume delves into the realities of these efforts, which have often involved compromising on integrity in pursuit of profile and influence.Examining the methods used by Western advocates, how they relate to campaigns in the countries concerned, and their impact, expert authors evaluate the successes and failures of past advocacy campaigns and offer constructive criticism of current efforts. Taking in a range of high-profile case studies, including campaigns for democracy in Burma and Latin America, for the rights of Palestinians in Gaza, and opposing the Lord’s Resistance Army in Uganda, the authors challenge the assumptions set forth by advocacy organizations.
Advocacy in Conflict was developed from the 2013 World Peace Foundation Student Seminar, Western Advocacy in Conflict: Methods, Impacts and Ethics, and is edited by Alex de Waal, with Jennifer Ambrose, Casey Hogle, Trisha Taneja and Keren Yohannes with contributions from many of the seminar participants. The seminar briefing full text available as a PDF download.
Listen to an interview "The Is Hell" conducted with Alex de Waal about the book.
Purchase in the UK through Zed Books or in the USA through the University of Chicago Press.
The World Peace Foundation hosts an Occasional Paper series to address topics related to our thematic research areas.
South Sudan 2017: A Political Marketplace Analysis
by Alex de Waal
February 5, 2017
This memorandum analyzes South Sudan since independence using the framework of the political marketplace, in order to provide a guide to understanding the trajectory of the current crisis and the steps needed to address it. It provides a succinct overview of the theory of the political marketplace and the ancillary concepts of moral populism and the negotiated sovereign entitlement to kill. It shows how South Sudan achieved independence as a rentier political marketplace organized by a conglomerate, bound together by a series of pacts, made possible by cash payments. When that cash dried up, the pacts dissolved, and the rivalries among political entrepreneurs became unmanageable and turned violent.
Occasional Paper on South Sudan
By Alex de Waal
March 24, 2016
South Sudan today is a collapsed political marketplace. The country’s political market was structured by competitive militarized clientelism for access to oil rents. Those oil rents have almost disappeared but the structure of competition is unchanged and the price of loyalty has not reduced to a level commensurate with the available political funding. The result is that political loyalty and services are rewarded with license to plunder. This is inherently self-destructive. South Sudan’s political economy is being consumed to feed its political-military elite.
The convergent economic, security and political crises mean that South Sudan is entering an extremely dangerous phase.
To Intervene or Not To Intervene: An inside view of the AU's decision-making on Article 4(h) and Burundi
By Solomon Dersso
Perhaps the most significant outcome of the 26th summit of the African Union (AU) was the decision scrapping the plan to deploy troops to Burundi for human protection purposes. In December 2015 the AU Peace and Security Council (PSC), the continental body's standing collective decision-making body on peace and security, announced a precedent-setting invocation of the AU's Article 4(h) authorizing the deployment of a military mission to Burundi to quell violence related to disputed elections. The January 2016 summit marked a fresh consideration of the earlier decision. This policy briefing examines in detail how and why the AU summit arrived at its decision on MAPROBU. It further discusses the implications of the AU summit decision vis-à-vis the situation in Burundi.
Dr. Solomon Ayele Dersso is a senior legal scholar and analyst of peace and security and current African affairs. His expertise and publications cover the role of the African Union in peace and security, the responsibility to protect and transitional justice in Africa.
Assessing the Anti-Atrocity Toolbox
by Bridget Conley-Zilkic, Saskia Brechenmacher and Aditya Sarkar
Beginning in the 2000s a new international consensus emerged regarding the need--both ethical and strategic--to prevent and halt genocide and mass atrocities. Armed with the insight that action need not be considered all or nothing, new energy was channeled into populating what became known as the "Anti-Atrocity toolbox," that is, the set of discrete but universally applicable policy measures that could be implemented to effectively counter atrocities. But what do we know about how effective these various are tools are for reducing violence? This paper reviews and synthesizes the academic literature on policy mechanisms commonly included in the Toolbox. Focusing on cross-country quantitative analyses, the authors help clarify what is currently known about correlations between the application of specific policy tools and the prevention, mitigation and halting of large-scale violence against civilians.
Dr. Bridget Conley-Zilkic is the WPF's Research Director, and Saskia Brechenmacher and Aditya Sarkar are Fletcher graduate students and WPF Research Assistants.
Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy: Implications for Humanitarian Response
by Dyan Mazurana and Daniel Maxwell
The purpose of this policy brief is to outline the implications of Sweden's overall feminist foreign policy for the people they strive to assist, Sweden's own humanitarian policy operations, and more broadly the whole humanitarian community, with a focus on gender equality and strengthening the rights and empowerment of women and girls in humanitarian crises. This policy brief is part of the Planning from the Future Project and was a joint project of two Tufts University institutions, the World Peace Foundation and the Feinstein International Center.
Dr. Dyan Mazurana is a WPF Senior Fellow. Dan Maxwell is Research Director for Food Security and Complex Emergencies at the Feinstein International Center.
A Personal Observation by Paulos Tesfagiorgis
This paper discusses how the Eritrea People's Liberation Front evolved from a liberation front (1971-1991), into a highly successful organization with clear social and political agenda, and, ultimately, into an oppressive state where power is concentrated in the hands of the President and his close network.The EPLF rose as a liberation army, involving the Eritrean people in an exceptionally arduous armed struggle against a major African army backed by world major powers to win independence. It was an effective fighting machine with clear people-centered ideology and a unique organization that captured the imagination of practically every Eritrean. As an organization, it forged solidarity and camaraderie between diverse Eritrean ethnic, class and gender groups, across rural and urban areas, and between Eritreans living inside the country as well as outside, for one great purpose – the liberation of the people, gaining independence of the country, through getting rid of the Ethiopian occupation force from Eritrea.
The paper documents how the EPLF changed towards the end of the fight for Eritrean liberation and then manifestly failed to provide its people with the fruits of democracy once war ended. In peacetime, people were promoted based on fidelity to the President and dissent was harshly silenced. The disastrous war with Ethiopia was in many ways caused by and further fueled these tendencies. Today, political dissent and news media have been squashed, and Eritreans are fleeing their country in large numbers.
Paulos Tesfagiorgis, a lawyer and human rights activist, established the only licensed regional centre for human rights and development in post-independent Eritrea. He was a co-founder and subsequently head of the Eritrean Relief Association during the Eritrean independence war. He has a masters degree in law from McGill University, Canada and has been a lecturer in law at the University of Asmara, Eritrea. He was awarded the Rafto Prize in 2003 for his work.
Gender, Conflict, and Peace
by Dyan Mazurana and Keith Proctor
This paper provides a summary of key literature, frameworks and findings in five topic areas related to Gender, Conflict, and Peace, as well as proposes opportunities for further research. Some of the questions the Occasional Paper addresses include: How does a gender analysis inform our understanding of armed conflict and peace-making? What are the gendered dimensions of war, non-violent resistance, peace processes, and transitional justice? The authors draw on interdisciplinary research in international security, political economy, anthropology, law, and other fields and make extensive references to case studies of armed conflict and peace processes worldwide.
Dyan Mazurana, Ph.D., is Associate Research Professor at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University and Research Director of Gender, Youth and Community at the Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, USA. She is also the Cathy Cohen Lasry Visiting Professor of Comparative Genocide Studies at the Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts. Mazurana’s areas of specialty include women, children and armed conflict, documenting serious crimes committed during conflict, and accountability, remedy and reparation. Her books include Research Methods in Conflict Settings: A View From Below (Cambridge University Press, 2013) with Karen Jacobsen and Lacey Gale, After the Taliban: Life and security in rural Afghanistan (Rowman & Littlefield, 2008) with Neamatollah Nojumi and Elizabeth Stites; Gender, conflict, and peacekeeping (Rowman & Littlefield 2005) with Angela Raven-Roberts and Jane Parpart; Where are the girls? Girls in fighting forces in Northern Uganda, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique (Rights & Democracy, 2004) with Susan McKay; and Women, Peace and Security: Study of the United Nations Secretary-General as pursuant Security Council Resolution 1325 (United Nations, 2002) with Sandra Whitworth.
Keith Proctor is a Visiting Fellow at the Feinstein International Center and a researcher on issues of transitional justice, memorialization, and mass violence in Northern Uganda. He is particularly interested in using a gender lens to evaluate cultural and institutional changes in the aftermath of conflict. In addition to regular collaborations with colleagues at the Feinstein International Center, he has consulted on projects for the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the World Peace Foundation. Keith also regularly contributes to Fortune. He has taught at New York University, worked in U.S. campaign politics, and was Director of Public Policy for the Americans for Cures Foundation. A recipient of David L. Boren, Truman Security, and Atlantik-Bruecke fellowships, Keith holds a Bachelor’s in Political Science from Stanford University, a Master's in International Relations from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, where he was an Overseers Scholar, and a Master’s in Comparative Religion from Harvard University, where he was a Presidential Scholar.
For publications by Alex de Waal, click here.
For publications by Bridget Conley-Zilkic, click here.
For publications by Dyan Mazurana, click here.