List of Agreements

World Peace Foundation Sudan Peace Archive

List of Agreements related to the work of the AUPD and AUHIP

List also available as a pdf download.


Nuba Mountains Ceasefire Agreement – 18 February 2002

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan peoples’ Liberation Movement in Bürgenstock, Switzerland.
  • The ceasefire in the Nuba Mountains laid the foundation for the CPA in 2005.

The Joint Military Commission (JMC)

Assist in the disengagement and redeployment of the combatants and the maintaining of the cease-fire in accordance with the terms of this Agreement

International Monitoring Unit (IMU)

Assist the Parties in implementing this Agreement and maintaining the cease-fire. The IMU works in collaboration with the Joint Military Commission

 

Machakos Protocol – 20 July 2002

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan peoples’ Liberation Movement in Machakos, Kenya. 
  • Agreement on broad principles of government and governance. The Machakos Protocol forms the basis for the CPA.

 

Agreement on Wealth Sharing During the Pre-Interim and Interim Period – 7 January 2004

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan peoples’ Liberation Movement/Army in Naivasha, Kenya.
  • The Agreement provides for wealth-sharing mechanisms between Southern Sudan and Sudan as a whole to share oil and non-oil revenue. It also calls for the participation of the community in the awarding of contracts.

National Land Commission

Arbitrates between willing contending Parties on claims over land, and sort out such claims

Southern Sudan Land Commission

Arbitrates between willing contending Parties on claims over land, and sort out such claims

National Petroleum Commission

Formulates public policies and guidelines in relation to the development and management of the petroleum sector and develop strategies and programs for the petroleum sector

Fiscal And Financial Allocation and Monitoring Commission

Ensures transparency and fairness both in regard to the allocation of nationally collected funds to the states/regions and the Government of Southern Sudan

Southern Sudan Reconstruction and Development Fund (SSRDF)

Raises and collects funds from domestic and international donors and disburses such funds for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the infrastructure of the South, for the resettlement and reintegration of internally and externally displaced persons;  addresses past imbalances in regional development and infrastructure

National Reconstruction and Development Fund (NRDF)

Develops the war affected areas and least developed areas outside Southern Sudan and a steering committee with appropriate

representation from such areas

 

Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement on the Conflict in Darfur – 8 April 2004

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality Movement in N’djamena, Chad. It exists in two versions.
  • This agreement established the cessation of hostilities between the parties and proclaims a 45 days ceasefire. The agreement also committed the Government of Sudan to neutralizing the janjawiid militia forces and, together with the rebel movement, to facilitating the delivery of humanitarian assistance.

Ceasefire Commission

Monitors violations of the ceasefire agreement

Joint Commission

Monitors violations of the ceasefire agreement

 

Protocol on the Resolution of Abyei Conflict – 26 May 2004

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan peoples’ Liberation Movement in Naivasha, Kenya.
  • The Protocol provides for an interim period of a few years following the signing of the CPA, during which Abyei shall have special administrative status under the institution of the Presidency and shall be administered locally by an Executive Council.

Abyei Area Security Committee

Ensures full implementation of  the Agreement

Abyei Boundaries Commission

Determines the boundaries; the commission shall present its final report as soon as possible

Abyei Referendum Commission

Conducts the Abyei referendum simultaneously with the referendum of Southern Sudan

 

Protocol on Power Sharing – 26 May 2004

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan peoples’ Liberation Movement in Naivasha, Kenya.

Southern Sudan Constitutional Drafting Committee

 

Human Rights Commission

 

National Civil Service Commission

Formulates policies for training and recruitment into the civil service, targets between Twenty – Thirty Percent (20% -30%) of the positions, confirmed upon the outcome of the census referred to herein, for people of South Sudan who qualify

The National Constitutional Review Commission

Tasked to prepare a Legal and Constitutional Framework text in the constitutionally appropriate form, based on the Peace Agreement and the current Sudan Constitution, for adoption by the National Assembly. The commission is comprised of the NCP, SPLM and representatives of such other political forces and civil society as agreed by the Parties

National Judicial Service Commission

 

A Fiscal and Financial Allocation and Monitoring Commission

 

 

Protocol on the Resolution of Conflict in Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile States – 26 May 2004

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan peoples’ Liberation Movement in Naivasha, Kenya.
  • The Protocol grants the two states a degree of autonomy within the National Government, which could serve as a national model for the relationship between the center and the states in a federal system. Under the Protocol, Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan States shall be governed by a state executive, legislature, and judiciary.

State Security Committee

 

Parliamentary Assessment and Evaluation Commission

Assesses and evaluates the implementation of the agreement in each State

State Land Commission

Regulates the land tenure, usage and exercise of rights in land

National Land Commission

Works alongside the State Land Commission

 

Protocol on the Improvement of the Humanitarian Situation in Darfur – 9 November 2004

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality Movement in Abuja, Nigeria.  
  • The agreement committed the parties once more to guaranteeing unrestricted humanitarian access in Darfur, and to protecting civilians.

Joint Humanitarian Facilitation and Monitoring Unit

Oversees the implementation of the agreement

 

Final Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) – 9 January 2005

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the SPLM.
  • The CPA was meant to end the Second Sudanese Civil War, develop democratic governance countrywide and share oil revenues. It further set a timetable for the Southern Sudanese referendum on independence.

The CPA consists of the following agreements:

  • The Machakos Protocol (Chaper I)
  • The Protocol on Power Sharing (Chapter II)
  • The Agreement on Wealth Sharing (Chapter III)
  • The Protocol on the Resolution of the Conflict in Abyei Area (Chapter IV)
  • The Protocol on the Resolution of Conflict in Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile States (Chapter V)
  • The Agreement on Security Arrangements (Chapter VI)
  • The Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities and Appendices (Annexure I)
  • The Implementation Modalities and Global Implementation Matrix and Appendices (Annexure II)

 

Juba Declaration on Unity and Integration – 8 January 2006

  • Signed by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army and the South Sudan Defense Forces.
  • The Declaration laid the basis for unifying rival military forces in South Sudan following the end of the Second Sudanese Civil War in January 2005.

High Political Committee

Oversees  the overall implementation of this unity agreement

Military Technical Committee

-        Tasked with:

-        The integration of SSDF into the SPLA and its command structures and all its component units including the Joint Integration Units

-        Harmonization of ranks and deployment of forces and to report to the principals

-        Handle issues of demobilization and downsizing of forces in accordance with the provisions of the CPA

-        Report to the High Political Committee on all matters relating to this Unity Declaration

 

Darfur Peace Agreement – 5 May 2006

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army in Abuja, Nigeria.
  • The 115-page Agreement aimed at ending the three years of conflict in Darfur.
  • Two rebel groups, including the JEM, rejected the Agreement.

Transitional Darfur Regional Authority (TDRA)

The principal instrument for the implementation of the Agreement and for enhancing coordination and cooperation among the three States of Darfur

National Civil Service Commission (NCSC)

Addresses the imbalances in the NCS , in order to create a sense of national unity and belonging

Joint Assessment Mission (JAM)

Identifies the needs of post-conflict economic recovery, development and poverty eradication program for Darfur states

Fiscal and Financial Allocation and Monitoring Commission (FFAMC)

Establish formulae for size and allocation of  resources to the Northern States including the Darfur states/region

Darfur Reconstruction and Development Fund (DRDF)

Collects funds from domestic and international donors and disburse such funds for the resettlement,  rehabilitation and reintegration of internally and externally displaced  persons and to address past development imbalances especially   infrastructure

Darfur Rehabilitation and Resettlement Commission (DRRC)

Addresses the basic needs of returnees

Security Advisory Team (SAT)

Supports the integration of former combatants and the restructuring of selected security institutions

Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and Consultation (DDDC)

A conference in which representatives of all Darfurian stakeholders can meet to discuss the

challenges of restoring peace to their land, overcoming the divisions between

communities, and resolving the existing problems to build a common future

Darfur Assessment and Evaluation Commission (DAEC)

Promotes the full and timely implementation of this Agreement

Property Claims Committees

Deals with all property disputes that arise from the return process

 

The National Elections Act 2008 – 7 July 2008

  • The National Elections Act of 2008 was passed by the National Assembly on 7 July 2008 and was signed by the President of the Republic on 14 July 2008.
  • The law provides the basic legal framework for conducting elections in the Sudan, in southern Sudan, and in each state (six elections in total: President of the Republic of the Sudan; President of the Government of Southern Sudan;  State Governors; Executive Elections; National Assembly; Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly; State Assemblies).
  • Answers to specific questions about the electoral process will be determined by Sudan’s electoral authority body, the National Elections Commission (NEC).

National Elections Commission (NEC)

Develops the regulatory framework (Regulations, Rules, and Orders) to implement the law and clarify issues related to the electoral process.

 

Southern Sudan Referendum Act – 31 December 2009

  • Adopted by the National Legislature and signed by the President of the Republic, Omar Hassan Ahmed Elbashir.
  • The Act provides the framework for the Referendum on independence in South Sudan, an essential part of the CPA.

Southern Sudan Referendum Commission (SSRC)

Organizes and monitors the referendum in accordance with the provisions of the Act, in

cooperation with the Government and the Government of Southern Sudan

Southern Sudan Referendum Bureau (SSRB)

Part of the SSRC; the Bureau has direct supervision over the work of High Committees for Referendum in Southern Sudan to ensure the fairness and transparency of the referendum process relating to registration, polling, sorting, counting, and aggregation/declaration of the results

 

Framework Agreement to Resolve the Conflict in Darfur – 23 February 2010

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Justice and Equality Movement in Doha, Qatar.
  • The Agreement is composed of 12 articles that treat the various aspects of the question of the conflict in Darfur. It focuses on a framework agreement to reach a comprehensive peace deal before the 15th of March 2010.

 

Electoral Code of Conduct for Sudan – 8 March 2010

  • Signed by the 15 main political parties in Sudan and South Sudan.
  • This voluntary Code, which commits the parties and candidates to common principles for free and fair elections, facilitates self-regulation by Sudan’s political parties during the forthcoming elections.

 

Framework Agreement to Resolve the Conflict in Darfur between the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement – 18 March 2010

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement in Doha, Qatar.
  • The Framework Agreement includes a ceasefire and aims at resolving the conflict in Darfur.

 

Mekelle Memorandum of Understanding between the NCP and the SPLM on Post-Referendum Issues and Arrangements – 21 June 2010

  • Signed by the National Congress Party and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement in Mekelle, Ethiopia.
  • The Memorandum formalized the role of the Panel and set out an agenda for talks. In addition, the Memorandum clustered the post-negotiations into four working groups: 1) citizenship; 2) security; 3) financial and economic natural resources, and 4) international treaties and legal issues.

 

 Joint Position Paper on Border Security – 30 May 2011

  • Signed by the National Congress Party and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • Establishment of the “Common Border Zone”.

Joint Political and Security Mechanism

Oversees implementation of agreements related to border security and monitoring and resolves related disputes

Joint Field Committee

Oversees complaints of the parties to their obligations under the agreement; coordinates planning of the agreement

 

 Doha Document for Peace in Darfur – 31 May 2011

  • On 14 July 2012, the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement signed a protocol agreement committing themselves to the Document, which is now the framework for the comprehensive peace process in Darfur.
  • The DDPD addresses the root causes of the conflict and its consequences, including power sharing, wealth sharing, human rights, justice and reconciliation, compensation and return, and internal dialogue among others.

Darfur Regional Authority (DRA)

The principal instrument for the implementation of this Agreement in collaboration with the GoS and with the support of the international partners. It will also play a central role in enhancing implementation, coordination and promotion of all post-conflict reconstruction and development projects and activities in Darfur, and be responsible for cooperation and coordination among the States of Darfur

Darfur Joint Assessment Mission (DJAM)

Identifies and assesses the needs for economic recovery, development and poverty eradication in the aftermath of the conflict in Darfur

Fiscal and Financial Allocation and Monitoring Commission (FFAMC)

Optimal use and sharing of resources vertically and horizontally; transparency in the allocation of funds to the States of Darfur

Darfur Land Commission (DLC)

Makes recommendations on land planning and development

Voluntary Return and Resettlement Commission (VRRC)

Responsible for all aspects regarding the voluntary return of the IDPs and refugees. The following bodies are established under the VRRC:

i. A Voluntary Return Committee (VRC);

ii. A Property Claims and Restitution Committee (PCRC);

iii. A Compensation/Jabr Al-Darar Fund (JAF)

Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission (TJRC)

Assesses the root causes of the conflict in Darfur, investigates violations, crimes and human rights abuses including violations of economic, social and cultural rights committed from February 2003, address issues of impunity and build a culture of confidence, peace and reconciliation

Composed of the:

i. The Justice Committee and;

ii. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee

Ceasefire Commission (CFC) and the Joint Commission

Monitoring and verification mechanisms

Darfur Internal Dialogue and Consultation (DIDC)

Seeks to consolidate peace in Darfur through popular consultation and dialogue; promotes confidence-building and encourage reconciliation as well as unity amongst the people of Darfur and Sudan in general

Implementation Follow-Up Commission (IFC)

Monitors the implementation of the agreement

 

Agreement Temporary Arrangements for the Administration and Security of the Abyei Area – 20 June 2011

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Abyei Joint Oversight Committee (AJOC)

Exercises political and administrative oversight of the Executive Council, and submits a monthly report to the President of Sudan and the President of South Sudan

Joint Military Observer Committee (JMOC)

Observes military activities and reports to the AJOC

 

Framework Agreement on Political Partnership between the NCP and SPLMN and Political and Security Arrangements in Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan State – 28 June 2011
  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement North in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • The Agreement reaffirms that the SPLMN has the right to continue as a political party in Sudan.

Joint Political Committee

Addresses all relevant issues related to Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile, including those requiring attention to national constitutional questions

 

 Agreement on Border Security and the Joint Political and Security Mechanism - 29 June 2011

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Government of South Sudan in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • The Parties reaffirm the Agreement on the Joint Political and Security Mechanism and the Joint Position Paper on Border Security.

 

Agreement on the Border Monitoring Support Mission – 30 July 2011

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Government of South Sudan.
  • Implementation agreement of the Joint Position Paper on Border Security of 30 May 2011.
  • The Agreement established the Safe Demilitarized Border Zone.

Support Border Monitoring Mechanism

Assists in ensuring the observance of the Security Commitments; supports activities; conducts institutional training for border police

Joint Border Verification Monitoring Sectors

Coordinates planning of the implementation of the agreement

Joint Border Verification Teams

Monitor and report on security within the SDBZ by conducting patrols and visits in their respective sectors; report unlawfully held weapons; arbitrate on local disputes

 

Memorandum of Understanding on non-aggression and Cooperation – 10 February 2012

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Government of South Sudan in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • The Parties commit themselves to basic principles of non-aggression, such as non-interference in the internal affairs of the other State and rejection of the use of force in conducting relations.

 

Cooperation Agreement – 27 September 2012

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Government of South Sudan in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • The Cooperation Agreement consists of the following agreements:
  1. Agreement on Security Arrangements
  2. Agreement on a Framework for Cooperation on Central Banking Issues
  3. Framework Agreement on the Statues of Nationals of the other State
  4. Agreement on Trade and Trade Related Issues
  5. Framework Agreement to Facilitate Payment of Post Service Benefits
  6. Agreement on Border Issues
  7. Agreement on Certain Economic Matters
  8. Agreement Concerning Oil and related Economic Matters

 

The agreements established the following bodies:

Economics

Joint Central Banks Committee (JCBC)

Support financial stability and sound banking policies in the two states and establishes cross-border banking systems and procedures

Joint Ministerial Committee on Pensions (JMCP)

Reaches agreements on pension-related issues and overseeing and approves the work of the JTCP

Joint Technical Committee on Pensions (JTCP)

Identifies eligible pensioners and coordinates disbursement of funds

Joint Ministerial Committee on Trade Relations (JMTR)

Holds primary responsibility for all matters of trade policy between the two states and oversees and approves the work of the JTCTR

Joint Technical Committee on Trade Relations (JTCTR)

Coordinates and promotes technical cooperation and implementation of trade-related issues, including customs cooperation, trade-related payment arrangements, and dispute-resolution mechanisms, among others.

 

Petroleum

Joint Cross Border Cooperation Committee

Coordinates the cross-border movement of oil sector personnel, equipment, and services and provides security to oil sector personnel

Petroleum Monitoring Committee

Oversees implementation of the oil agreement and monitors oil extraction and export

Petroleum Monitoring Committee; Financial Subcommittee

Reviews financial issues related to the oil sector, including reports produced by the operating companies and the two governments on oil extraction and export volumes

Petroleum Monitoring Committee; Technical Subcommittee

Monitors operational aspects of petroleum operations in one state that might affect the other state

 

Security and Borders

Joint Border Commission (JBC)

Oversees management of the border, including issues related to transboundary resource management

Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mission (JBVMM)

Investigates violations of agreements related to border security and monitoring and oversees monitoring of the Safe Demilitarized Buffer Zone

Ad Hoc Committee of the JBVMM Sector Headquarters (“14 Mile” area)

Supports Special arrangements related to the “14 Mile” area and investigates any alleged breaches of the special arrangements originating from beyond the Safe Demilitarized Buffer Zone

Joint Demarcation Committee (JDC)

Manages and supervises border demarcation and the maintenance of boundary pillars

Joint Technical Team (JTT)

Carries out the technical aspects of border demarcation and the maintenance of boundary pillars

 

Society

Joint Archives and Cultural Heritage Property Committee

Assists in the identification and repatriation of archives and cultural heritage property

Joint High-Level Committee on Nationals

Takes responsibility for all matters related to the states and treatment of nationals of one state in the other state, including the coordination of the adoption and implementation of relevant agreements

 

Implementation Modalities for Security Arrangements Agreed on 27th September 2012 – 8 March 2013

  • Signed by the Government of Sudan and the Government of South Sudan in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • The agreement consists of a detailed plan and timetable for the full implementation of all the elements of the “Agreement on Security Arrangements” between Sudan and South Sudan signed on 27 September 2012.