Agreements

Sudan Peace Archive: Darfur Collection--Agreements

The below documents are made available through the WPF Sudan Peace Archive. This selection includes several agreements between the Sudanese government and the Darfur rebel groups between 2003 and 2005, and one in 2010. None of these agreements were faithfully observed, but together they formed an important foundation from which to negotiate a final settlement.

Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement on the Conflict in Darfur (N’djamena Agreement)

  • Signed on 8 April 2004 in N’djamena, Chad between the Government of Sudan, the SLM/A and JEM. The negotiations were mediated by the Chadian government, supported by the AU.
  • The agreement established a ceasefire and set up two Commissions (Ceasefire Commission and Joint Commission) to monitor violations. It also created a team of military observers for the ceasefire, protected by an armed force. Together these comprised the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS).
  • The agreement also committed the Government of Sudan to neutralizing the janjawiid militia forces and, together with the rebel movement, to facilitating the delivery of humanitarian assistance.
  • Note: Shortly after the ceasefire had been signed by both parties, the Sudanese Government delegation demanded it be amended to include a provision on the cantonment of rebel forces. This was a highly sensitive addition and had not been agreed with the SLA/M. The provision was added by hand to Article 6 by the head of the AU mediation team, who assumed the text would be re-typed and submitted to the SLM/A for agreement. In fact, the Chadian mediator decided simply to sign and approve the amended version. The SLM/A thus disputed the validity of the final text and its implementation proved extremely difficult.

Agreement on the Modalities for the Establishment of the Ceasefire Commission and the Deployment of Observers in Darfur

  • Signed on 28 May 2004 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between the Government of Sudan, the SLM/A and JEM. The negotiations were mediated by the Chadian government, supported by the AU.
  • The agreement provides more details about the composition and functioning of the Ceasefire Commission and Joint Commission, created by the N’djamena Agreement (see above). It also gives more information about the deployment of the AU military observer team and armed protection force.

Protocol on the Enhancement of the Security Situation in Darfur

  • Signed on 9 November 2004 in Abuja, Nigeria between the Government of Sudan, the SLM/A and JEM. The negotiations were co-mediated by the Chadian Government and the AU.
  • In light of on-going violations by all sides, the agreement ‘recommitted’ the parties to the ceasefire. It also created various new provisions to enhance and better implement the N’djamena Agreement. The Government of Sudan again undertook to neutralize and disarm the janjawiid milita forces.

Protocol on the Improvement of the Humanitarian Situation in Darfur

  • Signed on 9 November 2004 in Abuja, Nigeria between the Government of Sudan, the SLM/A and JEM. The negotiations were co-mediated by the Chadian Government and the AU.
  • The agreement committed the parties once more to guaranteeing unrestricted humanitarian access in Darfur, and to protecting civilians. It acknowledged the role of the international community in responding to the humanitarian crisis and established a Joint Humanitarian Facilitation and Monitoring Unit to oversee implementation of the agreement.

Framework Agreement to Resolve the Conflict Between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM)

  • Signed on March 18, 2006, this agreement was mediated by the State of Qatar and the AU-UN Mediation as part of a series of meetings in Doha.
  • The agreement states general principles, outline a ceasefire, issues a general amnesty, and itemizes issues of negotiations, in addition to expressing agreement on the need to acknowledge the role of civil society.