Agreements

Sudan Peace Archive: Darfur Collection--Agreements

The below documents are made available through the WPF Sudan Peace Archive. This selection includes several agreements between the Sudanese government and the Darfur rebel groups between 2003 and 2005. None of these agreements were faithfully observed, but together they formed an important foundation from which to negotiate a final settlement.

Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement on the Conflict in Darfur (N’djamena Agreement)

  • Signed on 8 April 2004 in N’djamena, Chad between the Government of Sudan, the SLM/A and JEM. The negotiations were mediated by the Chadian government, supported by the AU.
  • The agreement established a ceasefire and set up two Commissions (Ceasefire Commission and Joint Commission) to monitor violations. It also created a team of military observers for the ceasefire, protected by an armed force. Together these comprised the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS).
  • The agreement also committed the Government of Sudan to neutralizing the janjawiid militia forces and, together with the rebel movement, to facilitating the delivery of humanitarian assistance.
  • Note: Shortly after the ceasefire had been signed by both parties, the Sudanese Government delegation demanded it be amended to include a provision on the cantonment of rebel forces. This was a highly sensitive addition and had not been agreed with the SLA/M. The provision was added by hand to Article 6 by the head of the AU mediation team, who assumed the text would be re-typed and submitted to the SLM/A for agreement. In fact, the Chadian mediator decided simply to sign and approve the amended version. The SLM/A thus disputed the validity of the final text and its implementation proved extremely difficult.

Agreement on the Modalities for the Establishment of the Ceasefire Commission and the Deployment of Observers in Darfur

  • Signed on 28 May 2004 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between the Government of Sudan, the SLM/A and JEM. The negotiations were mediated by the Chadian government, supported by the AU.
  • The agreement provides more details about the composition and functioning of the Ceasefire Commission and Joint Commission, created by the N’djamena Agreement (see above). It also gives more information about the deployment of the AU military observer team and armed protection force.

Protocol on the Enhancement of the Security Situation in Darfur

  • Signed on 9 November 2004 in Abuja, Nigeria between the Government of Sudan, the SLM/A and JEM. The negotiations were co-mediated by the Chadian Government and the AU.
  • In light of on-going violations by all sides, the agreement ‘recommitted’ the parties to the ceasefire. It also created various new provisions to enhance and better implement the N’djamena Agreement. The Government of Sudan again undertook to neutralize and disarm the janjawiid milita forces.

Protocol on the Improvement of the Humanitarian Situation in Darfur

  • Signed on 9 November 2004 in Abuja, Nigeria between the Government of Sudan, the SLM/A and JEM. The negotiations were co-mediated by the Chadian Government and the AU.
  • The agreement committed the parties once more to guaranteeing unrestricted humanitarian access in Darfur, and to protecting civilians. It acknowledged the role of the international community in responding to the humanitarian crisis and established a Joint Humanitarian Facilitation and Monitoring Unit to oversee implementation of the agreement.

Documents relating to the Tripoli Summit

  • This is a selection of documents relating peace talks between Sudan and its western neighbor, Chad. Since the start of the conflict in Darfur, tensions had developed between the two countries. In December 2005, these escalated into a proxy war that was played out between opposition groups in Eastern Chad and Darfur. In February 2006, Chad and Sudan met in Tripoli to try and resolve their differences. These efforts had important implications for the resolution of the conflict in Darfur, not least because of Chad’s role (until April 2006) as co-mediator at the Abuja talks.
  • The documents include the Tripoli Declaration on the Situation between the Republic of Chad and the Republic of Sudan, and the Tripoli Agreement for the Settlement of the Differences between the Republic of Chad and the Republic of Sudan. Both were signed on 6 February 2006 in Tripoli, Libya. Also included is a Report by the AU Commission and a Communiqué from the AU Peace and Security Council regarding the implementation of the Tripoli Agreement.