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Upcoming 2015 - 2016 Events:

No events currently scheduled.


Past Events:

Event summaries, where available, can be found by clicking on the event title.

Academic Year 2015-2016 | Academic Year 2014-2015 | Academic Year 2013-2014 | Academic Year 2012-2013 | Academic Year 2011-2012

Academic Year 2015-2016

Book Lecture: Bridget Conley-Zilkic discusses the newly released, How Mass Atrocities End: Studies from Guatemala, Burundi, Indonesia, the Sudans, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Iraq

Friday, April 8, 2016
Ginn Library, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
160 Packard Avenue
Medford, Massachusetts, 02155




Black and white photo image of man resting head against wall with reflective image on left side

Transforming Violent Masculinities
Wednesday, February 17, 2016
Asean Auditorium Cabot Intercultural Building
The Fletcher School, Tufts University
160 Packard Avenue
Medford, MA 02144

This event will explore masculinity as a critical and under-examined factor for understanding pathways to participation and non-participation in forms of violent activity. Panelists will analyze the mechanisms through which harmful notions of masculinity can lead men to violence, and in turn how experiences of violence can shape men's identities. The discussion will compare the connections and differences between pathways across contexts, and explore possibilities to promote healthier forms of manhood, with the ultimate aim of creating more peaceful and gender-just societies.


Gary Barker, Founder and International Director of Promundo
Kimberly Theidon, Henry J. Leir Professor of International Humanitarian Studies, The Fletcher School, Tufts University
Curt Rhodes, Founder and International Director of Questscope

The Past is Present: Mass Atrocities and Intergenerational Trauma
Thursday, December 3, 5:30pm - 7:00pm
Barnum 008
Researchers who study mass atrocities have long understood that the consequences of violence continue to impact communities even as decades pass. New scientific research suggests that not only are there social, political, financial and historical affects, but there are also changes in the DNA of those who experience trauma. What is more, these changes are passed on to subsequent generations. Join Tufts faculty in a multi-disciplinary discussion of the intergenerational effects of trauma. Panelists will reflect on “The Science of Suffering," New Republic article detailing the new research on DNA and trauma, as it relates to their own research. 

Panelists include: 
Kendra Field, Assistant Professor of History and Africana Studies; 
Barbara Grossman, Professor of Drama in the Department of Drama and Dance; 
Dyan Mazurana, Research Director, Feinstein International Center and Associate Research Professor, The Fletcher School; 
Lisa Shin, Professor and Chair, Department of Psychology.

Photo of Kenneth NwokoWPF Visiting Fellow Brown Bag Lunch: Kenneth Nwoko discusses The Nigerian-Cameroon Border Conflict Settlement and Matters Arising
Thursday, November 12, 2015
12:00 - 1:30 p.m.
Mugar Hall, M231



Book Lecture: Alex de Waal discusses his new book, The Real Politics of the Horn of Africa: Money, War and the Business of Power

Friday, November 6, 2015
Ginn Library, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
160 Packard Avenue
Medford, Massachusetts, 02155

Alex de Waal's latest book (Polity Press, September 2015) draws on his thirty-year career in Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia, including experience as a participant in high-level peace talks, to provide a unique and compelling account of how these countries leaders run their governments, conduct their business, fight their wars and, occasionally, make peace. In The Real Politics of the Horn of Africa, de Waal discusses how leaders operate on a business model, securing funds for their political budgets which they use to rent the provisional allegiances of army officers,militia commanders, tribal chiefs and party officials and how this political marketplace is eroding the institutions of government and reversing state-building.

Alex de Waal is the Executive Director of the World Peace Foundation and Research Professor at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University.


Rebuilding adolescent girls' lives after conflict

Thursday, October 29, 2015
Overseas Development Institute (DFID, UNICEF, the Carter Center) and streamlined online

This event will focus on the psychosocial dimension of rebuilding adolescent girls lives in post conflict settings.  An  invisible/neglected area, even within SCR 1325, psychosocial elements need to be a  central component of policy and programming if women and girls are to be active agents in change processes, especially in post-conflict settings.  Drawing on findings from a 2 year Rebuild/DFID-funded study exploring psychosocial support services for adolescent girls in the post-conflict settings of Gaza, Liberia and Sri-Lanka, this event will explore the kinds of psychosocial stresses adolescent girls face as well as the kinds of psychosocial support services available to them in these contexts. Study findings show that in these country contexts, not only does the category of adolescent girl often fall through the cracks in programme and policy responses, but psychosocial needs are often not recognised and that even where appropriate services exist, usage is limited due to gendered social norms affecting attitudes and behaviours both around service uptake and service provision.  


Advocacy in Conflict book cover image

Book Lecture: Advocacy in Conflict: Critical Perspectives on Transnational Activism

Monday, October 26, 2015
The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University
Cabot Building, 7th Floor
160 Packard Avenue
Medford, Massachusetts, 02155

Conflicts in Africa, Asia and Latin America have become a common focus of advocacy by Western celebrities and NGOs. This provocative volume delves into the realities of these efforts, which have often involved compromising on integrity in pursuit of profile and influence. Contributors and editors Jennifer Ambrose and Trisha Taneja are joined by authors Anat Biletzki, Laura Seay and Alex de Waal as they discuss the often controversial subject of transnational advocacy.

Anat Biletzki is the Albert Schweitzer Professor of Philosophy at Quinnipiac University (Connecticut, USA) and Professor of Philosophy at Tel Aviv University.
Laura Seay is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Government at Colby College, Maine.
Alex de Waal is the Executive Director of the World Peace Foundation and Research Professor at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University.


 Scott Straus Making and Unmaking Nations book coverBook Lecture: Scott Straus discusses his new book, Making and Unmaking Nations: War, Leadership, and Genocide in Modern Africa

Event summary now available.

Tuesday, October 20, 2015
The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University
Cabot Building, Room C205
160 Packard Ave.
Medford, MA 02155

In Making and Unmaking Nations, Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Grounded in Straus's extensive fieldwork in contemporary Africa, the study of major twentieth-century cases of genocide, and the literature on genocide and political violence, Making and Unmaking Nations centers on cogent analyses of three nongenocide cases (Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal) and two in which genocide took place (Rwanda and Sudan).

Academic Year 2014-2015

Why Can't We Stop Genocide?
A Zócalo/UCLA Event
Monday, May 4, 2015
7:30 p.m.
Goethe-Institut Los Angeles
5750 Wilshire Blvd., Ste. 100
Los Angeles, CA

Earlier this spring, Pope Francis made headlines when he used the word “genocide” to describe the killing of 1.5 million Armenians under Ottoman rule in World War I. The United States has yet to use that designation officially, despite the fact that Armenians globally just commemorated the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. What is genocide, and why does the world have so much difficulty identifying where and when it occurs? It took five years for Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir to be charged with genocide in Darfur. Although human rights advocates have been calling attention to a possible genocide in Syria for over two years, the international response has been muddled. And indeed, the world often has been powerless to stop genocide–from the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia and the Nazis in Europe to slaughterings of Tutsis in Rwanda and ethnic cleansing in Bosnia–in its tracks. What instigates the mass killings of certain groups of people? And how can these acts of brutal violence be prevented? UCLA historian Richard G. Hovannisian, University of Wisconsin political scientist Scott Straus, World Peace Foundation research director Bridget Conley-Zilkic, and Sudd Institute co-founder Jok Madut Jok.


South Sudan: A Slow Liberation book cover

Book Lecture:  Edward Thomas discusses his new book, South Sudan: A Slow Liberation 
Wednesday, April 15, 2015
Cabot Intercultural Building
160 Packard Avenue, Room C205
Medford, Massachusetts, 02155
Lecture- 5:30pm-7:00pm
Book signing - 7:00pm

In 2011, South Sudan became independent following a long war of liberation that gradually became marked by looting, raids and massacres pitting ethnic communities against each other.  In his remarkably comprehensive work, Edward Thomas provides a multi-layered examination of what is happening in the country today.  Writing from the perspective of South Sudan’s most mutinous hinterland, Jonglei state, the book explains how this area was at the heart of the country’s struggle.  Drawing on hundreds of interviews and a broad range of sources, this is a sharply focused account of South Sudan’s long, unfinished fight for liberation. 


Water Securities and Insecurities  

Wednesday, March 4, 2015
ASEAN Auditorium, The Fletcher School at Tufts University
160 Packard Avenue
Medford, Massachusetts, 02155

Intensifying water stress is one of the key trends of the 21st century. As scarcity of fresh water intensifies, there are fears that conflict over water resources will emerge as a threat to world peace. However, leading experts highlight that historically the management of transboundary waters leads to cooperation instead of confrontation, confronting the view of those who have argued that the wars of this century will be over water. Thus the panel will address the following question: will water stress lead to water war?

     Panel Speakers:

  • Ken Conca, American University
  • Andrea Gerlak, University of Arizona
  • Bruce Lankford, University of East Anglia
  • Lawrence Susskind, MIT
  • Moderated by William Moomaw, Tufts University


    Memories of Violence
    Friday, October 24th
    3:00 - 4:45pm
    Cabot Intercultural Building
    ASEAN auditorium
    160 Packard Avenue
    Medford, MA 02155 

    The inaugural event of the Initiative on Mass Atrocities and Genocide (IMAGe), a new collaborative effort between Fletcher and the broader Tufts community will feature four professors from across disciplines at both Fletcher and the School of Arts and Sciences, each bringing a different lens to the topic of how we manage memories of violence:

    • Bridget Conley-Zilkic from The Fletcher School and World Peace Foundation will speak to her work on memorial museums including the US Holocaust Memorial Museum where she worked for a decade
    •  Rosalind Shaw from the Anthropology Department will speak to how memory practice has been shaped by the political economy of post-conflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone
    •  Noë Montez from the Department of Drama and Dance will speak to how theater artists are engaging with the transitional justice process in Argentina Kamran Rastegar from the Department of German, Russian and Asian Languages and Literature will speak to how memories of violence are represented through film and literature with a focus on the Middle East
    • Dyan Mazurana from The Fletcher School and Feinstein International Center (and Co-Chair of IMAGe) will moderate

    A Poisonous Thorn in Our Hearts: Sudan and South Sudan's Bitter and Incomplete Divorce

    Thursday, October 16, 2014
    Book Signing 6:00pm
    Lecture 6:30-8:00pm
    The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University
    Cabot Intercultural Building, Room C205
    160 Packard Avenue
    Medford, Massachusetts, 02155

    Why did the world's newest country, South Sudan, sink into a devastating civil war less than three years after independence? How did the secession of its southern region affect the 'rump state', Sudan? In the years after Sudan Book Lecture Panel, Alex de Waal, James Copnall, Ahmed El Mahi and Chol Dengthe split, the two Sudans dealt with crippling economic challenges, struggled with new and old rebellions, and fought each other along their disputed border. A former BBC correspondent for Sudan and South Sudan, Copnall draws a compelling portrait of two misunderstood countries. The critically acclaimed A Poisonous Thorn in Our Hearts argues that Sudan and South Sudan remain deeply interdependent, despite their separation. It also diagnoses the political failings that threaten the future of both countries, and scrutinizes the international responses to the crises in the two Sudans. The author puts the turmoil of the years after separation into a broader context, reflecting the voices, hopes and experiences of Sudanese and South Sudanese from all walks of life.

    Towards a Strategy for Preventing Mass Atrocities

    Dr. Bridget Conley-Zilkic, Research Director World Peace Foundation
    Monday, September 29, 2014
    Centennial Hall, Alumni Center, Keene State College
    229 Main Street, Keene New Hampshire, 03435


    Academic Year 2013-2014

    Global Arms Business Researchers Round-table
    May, 8, 2014    4:00p.m.-5:30p.m.
    Cabot Intercultural Center, 7th floor
    170 Packard Ave.,
    Medford, MA, 02155

    World Peace Foundation invites Fletcher & Tufts students, faculty and staff to join us for a round-table discussion with leading researchers on the global arms business. Please RSVP to Light refreshments will be served.

    Participants include:

    Andrew Feinstein is author of The Shadow World: Inside the Global Arms Trade and co-founder of Corruption Watch-UK. A South African writer and campaigner based in the UK, he was elected an ANC Member of Parliament in 1994. He served as an MP for more than seven years, resigning in protest when the Public Accounts Committee was prohibited from investigating a massive arms deal involving several European companies that was tainted by allegations of high-level corruption.

    Paul Holden is a South African-born and London-based historian, researcher, writer and activist. Two of his books The Arms Deal in Your Pocket (2008) and Who Rules South Africa (2012); were major national best-sellers in South Africa. His major investigative work is The Devil in the Detail: How the Arms Deal Changed Everything (2011), which collated the result of years of detailed investigation into South Africa's biggest post-apartheid scandal. He works with Andrew Feinstein at Corruption Watch-UK.

    Leah Wawro is Civil Society Lead with Transparency International-UK's Defence and Security Programme, Leah currently works on liaison between the Defence and Security Programme and Transparency International's National Chapters and local civil society organisations. She is also part of the team working on an index to measure levels of integrity in government defence and security establishments worldwide.

    J. Paul Dunne is Professor of Economics at the School of Economics at the University of Cape Town, a research associate of the Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, and Emeritus Professor of Economics at the University of the West of England Bristol. He is editor, with Jurgen Brauer of the Economics of Peace and Security Journal and chair of Economists for Peace and Security (UK) and a Fellow of Economists for Peace and Security (USA). He has published widely on the economics of military spending.

    William Hartung is author of Prophets of War: Lockheed Martin and the Making of the Military-Industrial Complex (Nation Books, 2011) and the co-editor, with Miriam Pemberton, of Lessons from Iraq: Avoiding the Next War (Paradigm Press, 2008). His previous books include And Weapons for All (HarperCollins, 1995), a critique of U.S. arms sales policies from the Nixon through Clinton administrations. His articles on security issues have appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, The Nation, and the World Policy Journal.

    Sam Perlo-Freeman is Director of the SIPRI Programme on Military Expenditure and Arms Production. He is responsible for monitoring data on military expenditure worldwide. Previously he was a Senior Lecturer at the University of the West of England, working in the field of defense and peace economics.


    Youth, Conflict & Governance in Africa

    Friday, February 28, 2014
    10 Sachem St., Rm. 105
    Dept. of Anthropology at Yale University
    New Haven, CT

    This workshop is convened to assess how young people are currently changing the nature of governance in Africa. Youth are capitalizing on new mechanisms for interaction: the deregulation of internet, phone, global television, and social media communication has profoundly altered the political terrain. This is especially true in conflict settings, where youth can drive overt political violence. To break new ground, the workshop will integrate analysis across anthropology, media studies and communication, politics and economics, fields that have been working largely in parallel rather than in collaboration. 

    Co-organized by Catherine Panter-Brick (Yale University) and Alex de Waal (WPF). Keynote addresses by Alcinda Honwana (African Open University) and Philip Thigo (Social Development Network. Discussants are Merlyn Lim (Arizona State University) and Brian Barber (Center for the Study of Youth in Political Conflict).


    Unlearning Violence: Evidence and Policies for Early Childhood Development and Peace

    February 13-14, 2014
    ASEAN Auditorium
    The Fletcher School, Tufts University

    This conference will be an exciting and inter-disciplinary event, showcasing the best ongoing research in fields related to early childhood development and violence and peace. Further, presenters will chart directions for future research and policy.

    Detailed agenda, how to RSVP, and additional conference details available here.

    It Began in Boston: Celebrating a Century of Peace Work in Massachusetts

    Monday, January 13, 2014
    6:00 p.m.
    Edwin Ginn Library
    The Fletcher School at Tufts University

    When Edwin Ginn died on January 21, 1914, his bequest of a million dollars to the World Peace Foundation created an enduring contribution to peace. Ginn, like ourselves today, had the honor of working and living in a community rich with individuals and organizations dedicated to world peace. This event celebrates that community and its shared goal, and launches the WPF’s program of centennial events looking forward to the next hundred years of working for world peace.

    James Shannon, Trustee of the World Peace Foundation. Comments available here.

    Laura Roskos, President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, U.S. Section. Comments available here.

    J. Bryan Hehir, Montgomery Professor of the Practice of Religion and Public Life, Harvard Kennedy School of Government


    Clan Cleansing in Somalia

    Thursday, September 26, 2013
    5:30 p.m. EST
    Mugar 200

    In 1991, political and military leaders in Somalia, wishing to gain exclusive state control, manipulated clan sentiment to mobilize their followers in a campaign of terror which expelled a vast number of Somalis from Mogadishu, south-central, and southern Somalia. Join us as Lidwien Kapteijns discusses her book that analyzes this campaign of clan cleansing in the context the collapse of the Somalia's government and how it relates to the militia warfare that followed in its wake. 

    Academic Year 2012-2013

    Advocacy In Conflict: Do international public advocacy campaigns make an impact?

    Thursday, February 28, 2013
    12:30 p.m. EST
    Cabot, 7th Floor

    A panel discussion moderated by Alex de Waal featuring:

    Rony Brauman, former President of Doctors Without Borders, current Director of Research at the Doctors Without Borders Foundation, and Associate Professor at Sciences Po.

    Laura Seay, Assistant Professor of Political Science at Morehouse College, expert on African politics, conflict resolution, and state reconstruction, and author of the Texas in Africa blog.

    Amanda Taub, Adjunct Professor of International Law and Human Rights at Fordham University, co-author of the Wronging Rights blog, and editor of Beyond Kony2012. 


    Can Social Media Bridge Divides Between Diverse Muslim and Western Communities?

    Monday, January 14, 2013
    @WorldPeaceFdtn, #tweetingforpeace
    6:45 p.m. EST

    WPF’s first twitter event.

    Social media is today a critical platform where global youth communicate and express their political interests. But can these new technologies also play a role in bridging divides between communities? Posing this question in the crucial context of relations between diverse Muslim and Western communities, the World Peace Foundation at The Fletcher School welcomed guests speakers:

    Farah Anwar Pandith (@Farah_Pandith), U.S. special representative to Muslim communities
    Riyaad Minty (@Riy), head of social media at Al Jazeera (@AJArabic & @AJEnglish)

    Join the conversation on January 14th at 6:45 p.m. EST on Twitter: #tweetingforpeace, @WorldPeaceFdtn, and @FletcherSchool.

    More than 1.4 billion people are using social media worldwide. More than half of the world’s population is under 30 years old, with 62 percent of the Muslim population under 30. This young generation is one of the largest and most active age groups on social media, but it remains a question whether the media can overcome significant differences in language, politics, and assumptions to become a tool to support peaceful communication across social divides.

    In her position as the first U.S. special representative to Muslim communities, Pandith, a Fletcher graduate (F95), focuses on youth and civil society, and on building and increasing the capacity for young Muslims to engage in positive ways, including through social media. Al Jazeera’s Minty ensures the network is part of the conversation on Facebook, Twitter and other social media platforms. Most recently, his work has focused on the use of citizen media for crisis reporting. He is adept at discussing the role of new media and the challenges and opportunities that come with the technology.


    Roundtable on the Crisis in Mali

    November 15, 2012
    Cabot 7th Floor
    12:30pm EST

    Area experts discuss the evolving crisis in Mali. The panel was moderated by WPF Executive Director Alex de Waal and included:

    Jeremy Swift, author and scholar of nomadic pastoralists in and around the world’s great deserts, focusing on the pastoral Tuareg in Mali. Read Jeremy Swift's blog post about Mali.

    Roland Marchal, senior research fellow at Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, with extensive publications on conflicts in the Greater Horn of Africa (from Chad to Somalia) and the policy of international actors on the continent;

    Jeremy Keenan, social anthropologist and professor at the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London, focusing on the Sahara, North Africa and the Sahel region.


    Libya Today

    November 15, 2012
    Barnum 104
    6:00 p.m. EST

    Area experts provided up to date analysis of conditions in Libya today. The event was moderated by Hugh Roberts, Professor of History at Tufts University, formerly the North Africa Director for the International Crisis Group. Panelists were:

    Faraj Najem, a widely respected Libyan author, lecturer, historian, political commentator and advisor on Libyan matters, and a leading member of the Libyan diaspora in the UK;

    Dirk J. Vandewalle, an Associate Professor of Government at Dartmouth College, and a leading expert on Libya.


    Wandering Jews: American Jews, Human Rights, and Humanitarianism
    Sponsored by the Tufts Seminar Series: "Exploring the History of Humanitarianism and Development"
    November 14, 2012
    Rabb Room, Lincoln Filene Hall
    5:00 p.m. EST

    Michael Barnett, Professor International Affairs and Political Science at George Washington University, and author of Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism delivered remarks and a response was given by Alex de Waal, executive director of the World Peace Foundation. 


    The New Peace: A Presentation by Mary Kaldor

    Co-sponsored with the Institute for Global Leadership

    October 30, 2012
    Cabot ASEAN Auditorium
    5:00 p.m. EST

    Mary Kaldor discussed the third edition of her landmark work on New and Old Wars. Kaldor's work on new wars, first published in 1999, crystallized thinking about the changing nature of war in the globalized post-Cold War era, in particular focusing on the proliferation of non-state actors and the systematic targeting of civilians, the importance of identity politics, and the inter-relationship between private and often criminal interests and political conflict. As this book enters its third edition, Kaldor has further developed her thinking, updating her material to include Iraq and Afghanistan, responding to some critiques and providing a richer conceptual and evidence-based backdrop to explain “new wars.”

    Mary Kaldor is Professor of Global Governance and Director of the Civil Society and Human Security Research Unit at the London School of Economics. 


    Getting Somalia Wrong?: Faith, War and Hope in a Shattered State

    The Fletcher School
    September 25, 2012
    Cabot 206
    5:00 p.m. EST

    Mary Harper, author of Getting Somalia Wrong?: Faith, War and Hope in a Shattered State, discussed how this "failed state" is far from being a failed society, as alternative forms of business, justice, and local politics still flourish. Arguing that there is a lot to be learned from the Somali way of doing things, Harper's examination of Somalia sheds light on why international engagement has had limited impact. Copies of the book were available for purchase.

    Mary Harper is the Africa Editor at the BBC World Service. She has reported on Africa for the past twenty years, and has a special interest in Somalia.


    You Define the Issues: The Student Seminar Competition The Fletcher School
    September 18, 2012
    Cabot 206
    5:30 p.m.

    The WPF invited all Fletcher students to participate in the student seminar competition, where you define the issues and we cover the expenses for a two-day seminar with leading global experts on the topic of your choice. This event shared more about the competition and gave insights from the students who won the first competition with the seminar, "Transnational Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking: Re-Framing the Debate." WPF staff were also available to answer questions regarding the competition. 

    Academic Year 2011-2012

    Conflict in the 21st Century

    Institute for Global Leadership
    Tufts University
    February 22 - 26, 2012

    WPF's Alex de Waal was among the speakers in the the 27th Annual Norris and Margery Bendetson EPIIC International Symposium sponsored by the Institute for Global Leadership. For more information, visit their website.

    Inauguration of the African Union Human Rights Memorial

    Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    January 28, 2012

    The African Union headquarters inaugurated a new human rights memorial dedicated to the memory of the victims of Alem Bekagn central prison, creating permanent memorials to the Rwanda Genocide, Apartheid and slavery. The inaugural event commemorated those who perished during the Red Terror campaign and victims of other human rights violations. For more background information, see Alex de Waal's article on Alem Bekagn


    A Celebration of 101 Years of Working for Peace

    By invitation only
    January 17, 2012

    The January 17 reception marked the official launch of the World Peace Foundation at the Fletcher School.


    How Mass Atrocities End

    November 17, 2011
    Cabot Intercultural Center, Room 205
    6 p.m. EST

    There is perhaps no other phase of mass atrocities that is less studied yet more debated than endings.  An ideal ending dominates policy and activists' imaginations – victims saved, perpetrators defeated, and some form of transitional justice accomplished.

    But this rarely occurs. Actual endings are little researched, yet provide a rich field of study and valuable arena for policy development. Scholars and policymakers have developed tools for defining when a genocide is happening – but not for when it is over. For example, can we say that the mass atrocities in Darfur have finished or not?


    Alex de Waal, Director of the World Peace Foundation

    Jens Meierhenrich, Senior Lecturer in International Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science 

    Bridget Conley-Zilkic, Research Director, World Peace Foundation