de Waal publications

Books | Edited Collections | Peer-Reviewed Book Chapters | Non-Peer Reviewed Book Chapters | Major Reports | Essays, Articles & Op-Eds | Interviews, Lectures & Remarks


The Real Politics of the Horn of Africa: Money, War and the Business of Power. Polity Press 2015.

with Julie Flint.  Darfur: A New History of a Long War. London: Zed Book, 2nd ed, 2008

AIDS and Power: Why There is No Political Crisis—Yet. London: Zed Books, 2006

Famine that Kills: Darfur, Sudan. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 1989; revised ed. 2004; U.S. ed. 2005

Demilitarizing the Mind: African Agendas for Peace and Security. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2002

Famine Crimes: Politics and the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey, 1997

Edited Collections:

Advocacy in Conflict: Critical Perspectives on Transnational Activism, Alex de Waal, Jennifer Ambrose, Casey Hogle, Trisha Taneja, Keren Yohannes eds., Zed Publishing, 2015

War in Darfur and the Search for Peace. Alex de Waal editor. Harvard University Press, 2007

Islamism and its Enemies in the Horn of Africa. Alex de Waal editor. Hurst & Co. and Indiana University Press, 2004 

Young Africa: Realising the Rights of Youth and Children. Alex de Waal & Nicolas Argenti eds., Africa World Press, 2002 

When Peace Comes: Civil Society and Development in Sudan. Alex de Waal & Yoanes Ajawin eds., Red Sea Press, 2002

The Phoenix State: Civil Society and the Future of Sudan. Alex de Waal & A. H. Abdel Salam eds., Red Sea Press, 2001

Who Fights? Who Cares? War and Humanitarian Action in Africa.  Alex de Waal editor, Africa World Press, 2000

Peer-Reviewed Book Chapters:

de Waal, Alex. "My Fears, Alas, Were Not Unfounded’: Africa’s Responses to the Libya Conflict.", Libya: The Responsibility to Protect and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention, Aiden Heir and Robert Murray eds., Palgrave Macmillan, May 2013

de Waal, Alex.  "Sudan: Darfur."Responding to Conflict in Africa: The United Nations and regional organizations." Jane Boulden ed. 12: 283–306. London: Palgrave Macmillan, May 2013

de Waal, Alex. “An Emancipatory Imperium? Power and Principle in the Humanitarian International.” Contemporary States of Emergency: The Politics of Military and Humanitarian Interventions,  Didier Fassin & Mariella Pandolfi eds., Zone Books, 2010

de Waal, Alex. “Why Humanitarian Organizations Need to Tackle Land Issues." Uncharted Territory: Land, Conflict and Humanitarian Action, Sara Pantuliano ed., Practical Action Publishing & Overseas Development Institute 2009

de Waal, Alex. “Darfur, Sudan: Ethnicity, Islam and Citizenship.” Religion and Nationalism in Iraq: A Comparative Perspective, David Little & Donald Swearer eds., Harvard Univ. Press 2007

de Waal, Alex. "Humanitarianism Reconfigured: Philanthropic Globalization and the New Solidarity.” NonGovernmental Politics, Michel Feher ed., Zone Books 2007

de Waal, Alex. “AIDS, Hunger and Destitution: Theory and Evidence for the ‘New Variant Famines’ Hypothesis in Africa.” The New Famines: Why Famines Persist in an Era of Globalization, Stephen Devereux ed., Routledge 2007

de Waal, Alex. “The Challenge of HIV/AIDS.” Towards a New Map of Africa,  Ben Wisner, Camilla Toulmin & Rutendo Chitiga eds., Earthscan 2005

de Waal, Alex. “AIDS-Related Famine: Questioning Assumptions and Developing Frameworks”The Political Economy of AIDS in Africa, Nana K. Poku and Alan Whiteside eds., Ashgate 2004

de Waal, Alex. “Prospects for Peace and Security in the Horn of Africa." Prospects for Peace, Security and Human Rights in Africa’s Horn, Gunnar Sorbo & Siegfried Pausewang, eds., Fagbokforlaget 2004 

de Waal, Alex. “The African State and Global Governance.”Unbinding Africa: Making Globalization Work for Good Governance, Phoebe Griffith ed., The Foreign Policy Centre 2003

de Waal, Alex. “A Disaster with No Name: The HIV/AIDS Pandemic and the Limits of Governance." Learning from HIV and AIDS, George Ellison, Melissa Parker & Catherine Campbell eds., Cambridge Univ. Press 2003

de Waal, Alex. “HIV/AIDS: the Issue of A Lifetime." Global Health Challenges for Human Security, Lincoln Chen, Jennifer Leaning & Vasant Narasimhan eds., Harvard, Global Equity Initiative 2003

de Waal, Alex. “Human Rights, Institutional Wrongs.”Rethinking International Organizations: Pathologies and Promise, Dennis Dijkzeul & Yves Beigbeder eds., Berghahn 2003

de Waal, Alex. “Wars in Africa.” Global Insecurity, Mary Kaldor ed., Continuum 2000

de Waal, Alex. “Contemporary Islamic Humanitarianism in Sudan." Africa, Islam and Development, Thomas Salter & Kenneth King eds., Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh 2000

de Waal, Alex. “Dangerous Precedents: Famine Relief in Somalia, 1991-93."War and Hunger: Rethinking International Responses to Complex Emergencies, Joanna Macrae & Anthony Zwi eds., Zed Books 1994

de Waal, Alex. “Starving out the South in Civil War.” Sudan, Martin Daly & Ahmad Alsikainga eds., I.B. Taurus 1994

Non-Peer-Reviewed Book Chapters

de Waal, Alex. “Rethinking Activism: Social Movements and the State over the Longue Durée,” in Joel Pruce (ed.) The Social Practice of Human Rights, London, Palgrave.2015

de Waal, Alex “Evidence and Narrative: Recounting violence in Darfur, Sudan,” in Sharon Abramowitz and Catherine Panter-Brick (eds.), Medical Humanitarianism: Ethnographies of Practice, 2015

de Waal, Alex. “Sudan: A turbulent political marketplace,” in Mehran Kamrava (ed), Fragile Politics: Weak States in the Greater Middle East, NY, OUP.2015

de Waal, Alex. “Sudan’s Choices: Scenarios Beyond the CPA.” Sudan: No Easy Ways Ahead, Heinrich Boll Foundation ed., 2010

de Waal, Alex. "Preface in Capitalizing on Catastrophe: Neoliberal Strategies.” Disaster Reconstruction, Nandini Gunewardena & Mark Schuller eds., Altamira Pres, 2008 (Commissioned preface)

de Waal, Alex. “The Right to be Nuba."The Right to be Nuba: The Story of A Sudanese People’s Struggle for Survival, Suleiman Rahhal ed., Red Sea Press 2001

de Waal, Alex. “Humanitarianism Unbound? Current Dilemmas Facing Multi-Mandate Relief Operations.” Political Emergencies in Ethics and Development: On Making Moral Choices in Development Cooperation, C. J. Hamelink ed., Kampen 1997 (Re-publication of African Rights issue paper)

de Waal, Alex. “Some Comments on Militias in Contemporary Sudan.” Civil War in Sudan, Martin. Daly & Ahmad Alsikainga eds., IB Taurus 1994 (re-publication of 1990 seminar paper)

Major Reports

"African Politics, African Peace", Report by the WPF to the African Union, 2016 (with a preface by Thabo Mbeki and Lakhdar Brahimi), Mulugeta Gebrehiwot and Alex de Waal

"Global Hunger Index 2015: Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger" Washington DC, IFPRI, Dublin, Concern, and Berlin, Welthungerhilfe, by Klaus von Grebmer, Alex de Waal, Jill Bernstein, Nilam Prasai, Sandra Yin, Yisehac Yohannes, Olivier Towey and Andrea Sontag 

“African Union High-Level Panel on Darfur, Darfur: The Quest for Peace, Justice and Reconciliation,” (October 2009). Dr. Alex de Waal, principal author on the drafting team.

With Jennifer F. Klot, Manjari Mahajan, &  Dana Huber, “AIDS, Security and Conflict: New Realities, New Responses,” AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative, Social Science Research Council (SSRC)(Sept. 2009). Dr. Alex de Waal was the principal investigator and lead writer.

 “Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS, Home Truths: Facing the Facts on Children, AIDS, and Poverty (Feb. 2009). Dr. Alex de Waal was a lead member of the drafting team.

“Commission on HIV/AIDS and Governance in Africa, Securing our Future,” the Report of the Commission on HIV/AIDS and Governance in Africa (June 2008). Having been the originator of CHGA, Dr. Alex de Waal was asked to edit the final report and to write the chapter on governance.

“HIV/AIDS: Africa’s Greatest Leadership Challenge” (Dec. 2000). This is the report of the African Development Forum 2000 for which Dr. Alex de Waal was the lead writer.

“Food and Power in Sudan: A Critique of Humanitarianism,” African Rights (1997). Dr. Alex de Waal was the principal investigator.

“Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, African Rights” (1995). Based on the first outside visit to the non-government held areas of the Nuba Mountains, Dr. Alex de Waal was the writer of this report. 

“Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance,” African Rights (1994). While Rakiya Omaar was in Rwanda during the genocide conducting interviews and doing research, Dr. Alex de Waal was in London compiling, editing and writing this article.

“Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia,” Africa Watch (1991). Dr. Alex de Waal, principal investigator. 

“Sudan: Denying the Honor of Living,” Africa Watch (1989). Dr. Alex de Waal, principal investigator.

Essays, Articles & Op-Eds

Gebrehiwot, Mulugeta and de Waal, Alex. ‘Peace, Security and More Peace: The priorities for the African Union,’ The Guardian, 21 July 2016

de Waal, Alex. "Brexit threatens world peace and security", Boston Review, June 29, 2016

de Waal, Alex. "Designer activism and post-democracy", Open Democracy/Transformation, May 17, 2016 

de Waal, Alex. "Europe’s challenge in the Horn of Africa", Open Democracy, May 24, 2016

de Waal, Alex.  "Is the era of great famines over?", New York Times, May 9, 2016

de Waal, Alex. "The Mediator", (Review of biography of Maarti Ahtisaari), Times Literary Supplement, May 2016

de Waal, Alex.  "Rising Costs", (Review of R.W. Johnson, Can South Africa Survive?) Times Literary Supplement, April 2016

de Waal, Alex. "Africa’s $700 billion problem waiting to happen", Foreign Policy, March 17, 2016

Alex de Waal, ‘Assassinating Terrorists Does Not Work,’ Boston Review, 24 November 2015

de Waal, Alex. "Ending Mass Atrocity and Ending Famine", The Lancet 386, October 17, 2015, 1528-9

de Waal,Alex. "Sisi Goes to Addis Ababa". The New York Times, January 26, 2015.

de Waal, Alex. "Playing Many Sides, Sudan’s Bashir Tries Again to End his Isolation". World Politics Review, March 2, 2015

de Waal, Alex. "Militarizing Global Health." Boston Review, Nov.11, 2014

de Waal, Alex.“When kleptocracy becomes insolvent: Brute causes of the civil war in South Sudan.” African Affairs, 113 (452):  347-369, October 2014

de Waal, Alex, Abdul Mohammed. "Handmaiden to Africa's Generals.", The New York Times, August 15, 2014

de Waal, Alex. “Why Obama’s $5 Billion Counterterrorism Fund Will Actually Support Terrorism.” Boston Review, June 11, 2014

de Waal, Alex. “Profile in Practice: Toward Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding through Local Perspectives.” Anthropology News,  May 1, 2014

de Waal, Alex.  “Violence and Peacemaking in the Political Marketplace.” Accord, Issue 25: 17-20, April 2014

Conley-Zilkic, Bridget and Alex de Waal. “Setting the Agenda for Evidence-based Research on Ending Mass Atrocities.” Journal of Genocide Research, Volume 16 Issue 1: 55-76, February 12, 2014

de Waal, Alex, Chad Hazlett, Christian Davenport and Joshua Kennedy. The Epidemiology of Lethal Violence in Darfur: Using Micro-data to Explore Complex Patterns of Ongoing Armed Conflict.” Social Science & Medicine. February 10, 2014

de Waal, Alex and Abdul Mohammed. “Breakdown in South Sudan: What Went Wrong -- and How to Fix It.”  Foreign Affairs, January 1, 2014

de Waal, Alex and Abdul Mohammed. "South Sudan must resolve ethnic conflicts to be a nation at peace.” Washington Post, December 29, 2013

de Waal, Alex.“Playing the Genocide Card.” The New York Times, December18, 2013

de Waal, Alex. “Reinventing the World Peace Foundation,” Fletcher Forum 37.3: 85-94 September 24, 2013

de Waal, Alex.“Sudan’s Elusive Democratisation: Civic Mobilization, Provincial Rebellion and Chameleon Dictatorships.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies Vol. 31, Issue 2:213-234, 2013

de Waal, Alex and Rachel Ibreck. "Hybrid social movements in Africa.“ Journal of Contemporary African Studies.  Vol. 31, No.2: 303-324, April 3, 2013

de Waal, Alex and Rachel Ibreck. “Alem Bekagn: The African Union’s accidental human rights memorial.” African Affairs , March 13, 2013

de Waal, Alex. “African roles in the Libyan conflict of 2011.” International Affairs, 89.2: 365-379, March, 2013

de Waal, Alex. “Sizzling South Sudan: Why Oil is not the Whole Story.” Foreign Affairs,  February 7, 2013

de Waal, Alex, "Sudan and South Sudan in 2013: Rise or Fall Together." CNN World, December 20, 2012

de Waal, Alex and Abdul Mohammed.“Putting Mali Together Again.” The New York Times, December 11, 2012

de Waal, Alex.“The Theory and Practice of Meles Zenawi.” African Affairs, December 5, 2012

de Waal, Alex. “Meles Zenawi and Ethiopia’s Grand Experiment.” New York Times,  Op-Ed, August 22, 2012

de Waal, Alex. “How to End Mass Atrocities.”  International Herald Tribune, March 9, 2012

de Waal Alex, Jens Meierhenrich and Bridget Conley-Zilkic. “How Mass Atrocities End: An Evidence Based Counter Narrative.” Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 35:3 (Winter 2011) February 2, 2012

de Waal, Alex. “Getting Somalia Right this time.” The New York Times, February 2, 2012

de Waal, Alex.“The Contest over Peace and Security in Africa.” Open Democracy, February 1, 2012

de Waal, Alex "Remember Alem Bekagn.” London Review of Books, Vol. 34 January 26, 2012: No. 2 16-18

de Waal, Alex. “South Sudan's Doomsday Machine." International Herald Tribune, January 24, 2012

de Waal, Alex and Chad Hazlett, Christian Davenport, Joshua Kennedy.“Evidence-based Peacekeeping: Exploring the Epidemiology of Lethal Violence in Darfur.”Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, March, 2010

de Waal, Alex. "The Humanitarians’ Tragedy: On the Escapable and Inescapable Cruelties of the Humanitarian Predicament,” Disasters, February, 2010

de Waal, Alex. “HIV/AIDS and the Challenge of Security and Conflict.” 375 The Lancet 22-23,  Jan. 2, 2010

de Waal, Alex “Reframing Governance, Security and Conflict in the Light of HIV/AIDS.” Social Science and Medicine, January 2010

de Waal, Alex and Julie Flint.“Case Closed: A Prosecutor Without Borders.” World Affairs, Spring 2009

de Waal, Alex. “Mission without End? Peacekeeping in the African Political Marketplace.” International Affairs, Jan. 13, 2009 

de Waal, Alex. “Mission without End? Peacekeeping in the African Political Marketplace.” 85 International Affairs, 99-113, Jan. 2009 

de Waal, Alex. “On Famine Crimes and Tragedies,” Perspectives, 372 The Lancet 1538-9, Nov. 1, 2008

de Waal. Alex. “Between Exceptionalism and Revisionism: Children and Global AIDS Policies.” IDS Bulletin, Nov. 2008

de Waal. Alex, Jerker Edstrom & Masuma Mamdani, “Introduction: Children, HIV/AIDS and Development Policy.” IDS Bulletin, Nov. 2008

de Waal. Alex. “The Humanitarian Carnival: A Celebrity Vogue.” World Affairs, Fall 2008

de Waal. Alex. “Darfur and the Failure of the Responsibility to Protect.” International Affairs, Nov, 2007

de Waal. Alex. “Sudan: What Kind of State, What Kind of Crisis?” LSE Crisis States Research Centre, Occasional Paper No. 2 Apr. 2007   

de Waal. Alex. “Sudan: International Dimensions to the State and Its Crisis.” LSE Crisis States Research Centre, Occasional Paper No. 3 Apr. 2007

de Waal. Alex. "No Such Thing as Humanitarian Intervention.” Harvard International Review, Mar. 21, 2007 

de Waal. Alex. “The Wars of Sudan.” The Nation , Mar.1, 2007

de Waal. Alex. “Class and Power in a Stateless Somalia.” SSRC Webforum, Crisis in the Horn of Africa Jan. 2007  

de Waal. Alex. “Reflections on the Difficulties of Defining Darfur’s Crisis as Genocide,” 20 Harvard Journal of Human Rights: 25-33, 2007 

de Waal. Alex. “Averting Genocide in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan.” SSRC Webforum, How Genocides End, Dec. 2006  

de Waal. Alex, Bridget Conley-Zilkic, “Reflections on How Genocidal Killings are Brought to an End.” SSRC Webforum, How Genocides End, Dec. 2006 

de Waal. Alex. “I Will Not Sign: Alex de Waal at the Darfur Peace Talks,” 28 London Review of Books 17-20, Nov. 30, 2006

de Waal. Alex. “The Book Was Closed Too Soon On Peace in Dafur.” The Guardian, Sept. 29, 2006 

de Waal. Alex. “Darfur's Fragile Peace.” OpenDemocracy, July 4, 2006 

de Waal. Alex. “An Imperfect Storm: Narratives of Calamity in a Liberal-Technocratic Age, Understanding Katrina.” Perspectives from Social Sciences, Jun. 11, 2006 

de Waal. Alex. “Personal View on Darfur Peace Talks.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, May 4, 2006

de Waal. Alex,  Seyoum Tafesse & L. Carruth, “Child Survival During the 2002-2003 Drought in Ethiopia.” 1(2) Global Public Health 125-132, 2006

de Waal, Alex. “Evidence For The ‘New Variant Famine’ Hypothesis In Africa,” Justice Africa, (2006). 

de Waal, Alex. “Towards a Comparative Political Ethnography of Disaster Prevention.” 59 Journal of International Affairs 129-152, 2006  

Whiteside. Alan, Alex de Waal & Tsadkan Gebre-Tensae. “AIDS, Security and the Military in Africa: A Sober Appraisal.” 105 African Affairs 201-218, 2006

Tadesse Berhe, Hagos Gemechew & Alex de Waal, “War and HIV Prevalence: Evidence from Tigray, Ethiopia." 14 African Security Rev. 107-114, 2005

de Waal. Alex. “An Imperfect Storm: Narratives of Calamity in a Liberal-Technocratic Age.” SSRC Webforum, Understanding Katrina: Perspectives from the Social Sciences, Sept. 2005 

de Waal. Alex. “Sudan’s Chance,” Prospect, Aug. 28, 2005  

de Waal, Alex. “Chasing Ghosts: The Failure of Jihad in Africa.” London Review of Books, Aug. 18, 2005 

de Waal, Alex. “Deep Down in Darfur.” Times Literary Supplement, August 12, 2005

de Waal. Alex. “Who are the Darfurians? Arab and African Identities, Violence and External Engagement.” 104 African Affairs 181-205, 2005

de Waal. Alex. “Briefing: Darfur, Sudan: Prospects for Peace.” 104 African Affairs, 127-35, Jan. 2005

de Waal. Alex. “Counter-Insurgency on the Cheap.” 26 London Review of Books 25, Aug.5, 2004 

de Waal. Alex. “Human Rights Organizations and the Political Imagination: How the West and Africa Have Diverged" 2 Journal of Human Rights 1, Dec. 2003

de Waal. Alex,  Alan Whiteside. “‘New Variant Famine’: AIDS and Food Crisis in Southern Africa.” 362 The Lancet 1234-37, Oct.11, 2003

de Waal. Alex. “How Will HIV/AIDS Transform African Governance?” 202 African Affairs 1-23, Jan. 2003

de Waal. Alex. “What’s New in NEPAD?” 78 International Affairs 463-476, July 2002 

de Waal. Alex. “Une perspective de paix pour Le Soudan en 2002” 85 Politique Africaine 93-107, Mar. 2002  

de Waal. Alex. “On the Moral Solipsism of Global Ethics Inc.” London Review of Books, Aug. 2001

de Waal. Alex. “Democratic Political Processes and the Fight against Famine.” Institute of Development Studies Occasional Paper No. 103, Mar. 2000

de Waal. Alex. “U.S. War Crimes in Somalia.” New Left Review, Sept. 1998 

de Waal. Alex. “Exploiting Slavery: Human Rights and Political Agendas in Sudan.” 1 New Left Review 227, Feb. 1998  

de Waal. Alex. “Democratizing the Aid Encounter in Africa.” 73 International Affairs 623-39, Oct. 1997 

de Waal. Alex. “Exploiter l’esclavage: droits de l’homme et enjeux politiques." Politique Africaine, Jun. 1997

de Waal. Alex. “Group Identity, Rationality and the State.” 11 Critical Review, 1997

de Waal. Alex. “Contemporary Warfare In Africa: Changing Context, Changing Strategies.” 27 IDS Bulletin 6-16, 1996

de Waal. Alex. “Dix ans de famines dans le corne de l’Afrique: un premier bilan d’action humanitaire." Politique Africaine 74-87, Jun. 1993

de Waal. Alex. “Sudan: Searching for the Origins of Absolutism and Decay." 24 Development & Change 177-202,1993

de Waal. Alex. “Ethiopia: Transition to What?” 9 World Policy Journal, Feb. 1992

de Waal. Alex. “A Reassessment of Entitlement Theory in the Light of Recent Famines in Africa.” 21 Development & Change 469-90,1990

de Waal. Alex. “Famine Mortality: A case study of Darfur, Sudan, 1984-85.” Population Studies, 1989

de Waal. Alex. “Perceptions of Poverty and Famine.” Int’l Journal of Moral & Political Philosophy, 1987

Interviews, Lectures & Remarks

‘Africa’s step to be a continent of peace’, The Christian Science Monitor, July 21, 2016

Jason Thompson, ‘Why international intervention may be needed to stabilize South Sudan’, The Christian Science Monitor, July 14, 2016

Alex de Waal, interview by Martine Dennis, ‘What's gone wrong in South Sudan?’ Al Jazeera July 09 2016

Eva Botkin-Kowacki, ‘Worst forms of famine see decline’, The Christian Science Monitor, June 6, 2016

Alex de Waal, interview by Kevin Sullivan, ‘The Ethiopian Drought’, Sirius/XM's Catholic Channel's JustLove,  May 18, 2016 

William Davison ‘In South Sudan Kiir and Machar kick off ‘new’ rule with 240% inflation, empty coffers, and a mountain of problems’, Mail & Guardian Africa, April 27, 2016

Rae Ellen Bichell, ‘The World Is Not As Hungry As You Might Think’, NPR, October 16, 2015

‘The World Is Not As Hungry As You Might Think’, October 15, 2016, WBGH News

"Sudan Expert: International Community Enabled South Sudanese Corruption", Al Jazeera America, April 12, 2015

de Waal, Alex. “Can there be a democratic developmental peace?” Tana High Level Forum on Security in Africa, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, April 27, 2014

de Waal, Alex. “Lessons for Peacemaking in South Sudan.” Lecture, Juba University, April 14, 2014

Carr Center for Human Rights Policy and the Harvard University Committee on African Studies. 2014. Two Sudans: The Path Forward, Harvard, April 3, 2014

“Examining Vicious Cycle Of Ethnic Violence In South Sudan.” Host Renee Montagne, NPR, January 20, 2014

de Waal, Alex. “The Responsibilities of an Activist in a Global Political Order.” Keynote Address, University of Dayton, Ohio, October 4, 2013

de Waal, Alex. “Trans-national Organized Crime in Africa: Whose problem?" Remarks from Tana High-Level Forum on Security in Africa, Bahir Dar,2013

de Waal, Alex. “Ethiopia and the ‘Meles Zenawi’ doctrine of national security.” Addis Ababa, August 20, 2013

“Oil diplomacy in the Sudans.” By Christopher Alessi,Council on Foreign Relations Interviewer, October 8, 2012

de Waal, Alex. “Contesting Visions of Peace in Africa:  Darfur, Ivory Coast, Libya” Agenda Setting Lecture, University of Limerick, May 2, 2012