The Fletcher School: International Security Studies Program

Research

Dr. Itamara Lochard
Senior Researcher, International Security Studies

Dr. Itamara Lochard is the Senior Researcher in International Security at the Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy and a certified mediator. She regularly advises senior government and military leaders on her dataset of ~1,750 non-state armed groups including insurgents, terrorists, militias, criminal organizations, organized gangs and malicious cyber actors. For the past 25 years, she has examined sub-state groups’ para-state function, organizational structures, areas of operation, cooperation and use of technology most Dr. Itamara Lochard profile picture-outside 2015notably at NATO, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and the Institute of International Studies (IIS) at Stanford University. She merges these data with metrics of governance and other variables to identify patterns and shifts in tactics and strategies.

In addition to presenting papers at academic associations, her work has been featured at the NATO Defense College (NDC) in Rome, the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence (CCDCOE) in Estonia, NATO HUMINT Center of Excellence (HCOE) in Romania, NATO Center of Excellence Defense Against Terrorism (CoE-DAT) in Turkey, the Estonian Cyber Defense League, NATO Rapid Deployable Corps – Turkey (NRDC-T), various UN-sponsored fora, U.S. National Defense University, U.S. Joint Special Operations University (JSOU), industry conferences to Fortune 100s, Highlands Forum as well as at the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense. Frequently, she is the only U.S. academic present. She has also conducted executive education to mid- to senior-level, political-military officers of Armenia, Estonia, Macedonia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the Critical National Infrastructure Authority of United Arab Emirates. Operationally, she was the only U.S. civilian to participate in the initial two years of military-to-military, European Command (EUCOM)-funded, Computer Network Operation familiarization exercises by the United States in the Republics of Georgia and Estonia. Furthermore, she was the founding commander of the first U.S. civilian cyber unit at the defense force rank of Colonel (MDDF).

Since 2007 Dr. Lochard has served as a subject matter expert for NATO CoE-DAT on terrorists’ use of technology, strategic communications and crisis management. She developed their first lectures and courses on ”Terrorists Use of Cyber” in 2008 which was subsequently launched as a staple activity. This was the first week-long executive education course of its kind for the Alliance. It includes NATO, Partnership for Peace, Mediterranean Dialogue and Istanbul Cooperative Initiative participants as well as others.

That same year, Dr. Lochard developed and taught an “Advanced Irregular War” module at JSOU. The aim was to address 21st-century opportunities and challenges for U.S. Special Forces, folding in the dimensions of cyber and technology. She has also provided instruction to NATO senior leadership at the NDC in Rome on media, strategic communications, crisis management and organizational structures of non-state armed groups as well as their use of technology.  Moreover, she also developed tailor-specific trainings for several ISAF pre-deployment troops for the NATO troops at NRDC-T. 

From 2011-2014 Dr. Lochard chaired the “Understanding the Local Environment” panel of the “Human Aspects of the Operational Environment” project of the NATO HCOE to assist Alliance doctrine development on human intelligence. This multi-year project was led by NATO Assistant Secretary General Dr. Jamie Shea.  Furthermore, in 2013 she facilitated the development of other NATO Science for Peace and Security efforts in the Republic of Macedonia focusing on cyber, to include the first effort in the Balkan region. In order to help prepare next-generation leaders better understand digital age phenomena, Dr. Lochard also provided the first cyber course to a cadre of 200 cadets from a dozen countries during 10-day, crisis-management field exercises in 2014 and 2015. Here, she was the only U.S. civilian academic among instructors from militaries, the International Red Cross and the Marshall Center. These efforts were sponsored by the Mihailo Apoststolski Macedonian Military Academy. In an effort to foster cooperation between the Baltic and Balkan regions, in Spring 2014 she coordinated and participated in the first cyber cooperative effort between the Ministries of Defense of the Republics of Macedonia and Estonia, serving as the only U.S. representative.

Dr. Lochard was also the founding director of the Cyber Initiative at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (MIIS), where she was responsible for creating an interdisciplinary, networked platform to assess the policy impact of the information age on security, peace and communications in international affairs. Among other tasks, she offered and developed graduate instruction on “Non-State Actors in a Digital Era.” She also developed the first three-week, “Cyber Security and International Relations Executive Education” effort for the Cooperative Monitoring Center of Sandia National Laboratories, with the goal of using cyber as a platform for cooperation and peace. She also co-sponsored a Russia, Ukraine and Cyber Threats Experts Forum in April 2014 as well a “Global Knowledge Network - Toward a Smart Century: Global Partnerships for Innovative Learning and Leader Development Workshop” with the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and the U.S. Department of Defense. The goal of this interdisciplinary Geneva effort was to develop the methodologies needed to conduct civilian and military training needed for twenty-first century challenges.

At the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, she has conducted research and taught executive education as an adjunct professor of the Southwest Asia and Islamic Civilization Program. As the Senior Researcher of the International Security Studies Program, she has provided graduate-level seminars on “Irregular War” as well as cyber segments in seminars on “Homeland Security” and “Crisis Management”. When in residence, Dr. Lochard counsels graduate students and assists U.S. military fellows in developing their fellowship paper, required by their respective services. She has also served on several committees including faculty searches, reconstruction and renovation as well as the doctoral degree program. In addition, she founded the monthly Perspectives Gallery photo-journalism exhibits in 2001, on permanent display in Fletcher’s Ginn Library. All proceeds are donated to the child soldier rehabilitation efforts of the U.N. Office of Children in Armed Conflict.

Dr. Lochard holds a B.S. in Foreign Service from Georgetown University and four graduate degrees from Stanford University and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. She received the Presidential Award for Citizenship and Public Service at Tufts University. For several years, Dr. Lochard also served as a contributing editor of Princeton University’s Journal of Public & International Affairs. In 2011, was awarded a Medal of Honor for Special Services from the Cyber Defense League of the Estonian Defense Forces.

Fellowships and Grants:

  • "Defense, Diplomacy and Development: Research to Develop Cyber-Relevant Capabilities in Information Sharing in the Baltics," U.S. Office of Naval Research. (White paper accepted September 2015, funding in FY16 cycle anticipated, January 2016 – January 2018). 
  • Behavioral Responses to Cyber Incidents Grant, U.S. Office of Naval Research, Sandia National Laboratories, Cognitive Science & Applications, Cyber Engineering Research Institute
  • Cyber Security and International Relations Executive Education Grant, U.S. Department of Energy, Cooperative Monitoring Center, Sandia National Laboratories
  • International Institute of Studies Fellow, Stanford University 
  • George P. Shultz Grant – Stanford University 
  • Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation Fellow (renewed four years) 
  • H.B. Earhart Foundation Fellow, Ann Arbor, Michigan 
  • Jebsen Center for Counter-Terrorism Studies – Grant 
  • International Security Studies Program Fellowship, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (renewed five years).

Honors and Awards:

  • Order of Thor – Military Cyber Professionals Association, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School Foundation, Monterey, California 2013
  • Medal of Honor for Special Services – Republic of Estonia, Kaitseliit Cyber Division, Estonian Defense Forces, Estonian Defense League Headquarters – Tallinn, Estonia, 2011
  • Presidential Award for Citizenship and Public Service – Tufts University

Selected Presentations and Publications:

“Assessing Contemporary Digital Strategic Messaging by Non-State Actors: Fallacies and Possible Solutions,” Cyber Propaganda and Cyber-Enabled Terrorism: Countering Extremism Online Panel, 32nd International Workshop on Global Security. Center for Strategic Decision Research and the Institut des hautes études de defense nationale (IHEDN). L’Hôtel des Invalides, Paris, France: 5 – 6 November 2015.  

Cyber Challenges,” Global Challenges: Addressing Shared Risks Panel, Toward a Smart Century: Global Partnerships for Innovative Learning and Leader Development Workshop. Centre International de Conférences, Geneva, Switzerland: 15 – 17 September 2015.

“The Riga Stratcom Dialogue: Perception Matters,” NATO Center of Excellence on Strategic Communications. Riga, Latvia: August 2015. 

“Crisis Management in the Digital Age,” International Summer Campus. Mihailo Apostolski Military Academy, Pepliste, Macedonia, 29 June – 9 July 2015.

“NATO International Lessons Learned Conference,” Baltic Defense College, Tartu, Estonia: 1 – 4 June 2015.

“Terrorists’ Use of Cyber and Technology” and “Countering Terrorists’ Use of Cyber and Technology,” NATO Science for Peace and Security, NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism (CoE-DAT). Ankara, Turkey: February 2015.

“International Cyber Security Cooperation,” TechNet 2015: Convergence, Armed Forces Communication and Electronics Association (AFCEA) – Tokyo Chapter. Sano Hotel, Tokyo, Japan: February 2015.

NATO Advanced Training Workshop, “Terrorists’ Use of Cyberspace for the Balkans,” NATO Science for Peace and Security project run by the NATO Center of Excellence – Defense against Terrorism (CoEDAT) and the Mihailo Apostolski Military Academy of Macdeonia,. Ohrid, Macedonia: December 2014.

“Dealing with the Threat — the Key Role of Industry,” Addressing Complexity: Trends in Cyber Cooperation Panel, 31st International Workshop on Global Security. Center for Strategic Decision Research and the Institut des hautes études de defense nationale (IHEDN). L’Hôtel des Invalides, Paris, France: 27 – 28 October 2014.

Chair, “Dynamics of the Local Situation – Part VII,” Human Aspects of the Operational Environment. NATO HUMINT Center of Excellence (HCOE), NATO Science for Peace and Security, Counter-Terrorism Programme, Emerging Security Challenges Division. Romania, 13 – 18 October, 2014.

Co-author, “Understanding the Local Population – Part VII,” Human Aspects of the Operational Environment. NATO HUMINT Center of Excellence (HCOE), NATO Science for Peace and Security, Counter-Terrorism Programme, Emerging Security Challenges Division. Romania: 13-18 October, 2014.

“International Cyber Education and Cooperation,”Defense Studies in Bulgaria – A Centennial Tradition and New Horizons, International Scientific Conference. Sofia, Bulgaria: 7 – 9 October 2014.

“The Modern Cybersecurity Landscape: A Path Forward,” Goldman Sachs Annual Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Conference. Four Seasons Hotel, Washington, D.C.: 29 – 30 September 2014.

Cyberspace Policy and International Affairs,” International Partnership Building Program, Cooperative Monitoring Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Executive Education Workshop. August 2014.

“Defense in Cyber,” International Summer Campus. Mihailo Apostolski Military Academy of Macedonia. Pepliste, Macedonia: 10 – 20 June 2014.

Cyber Threats and Cyber Solutions: Information security as a competitive advantage.” Battery Club, San Francisco, California: 27 May 2014.

“Terrorists’ Use of Cyber and Technology” and “Countering Terrorists’ Use of Cyber and Technology,” NATO Science for Peace and Security, NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism (CoE-DAT). Ankara, Turkey: 5-9 May 2014.

“International Perspectives on Cyber Incidents,” Russia, Ukraine, Cyber Threats Experts Forum. Middlebury Institute of International Studies Cyber Initiative, Irvine Auditorium. Monterey, California: 17- 18 April 2014.

Macedonian Delegation Engagement in Estonia: 16 – 22 March 2014

“Terrorists’ Use of Cyber and Technology” and “Countering Terrorists’ Use of Cyber and Technology,” NATO Science for Peace and Security, NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism (CoE-DAT). Ankara, Turkey: 10 – 14 March 2014

“NATO-Led Cyber Operations: Cyber Challenges,” NATO Partnership and Operations: Addressing Insecurities and Creating Security Workshop. EURO-Atlantic Council of Macedonia and NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division: Berovo, Macedonia, 18-22 December 2013

“Non-State Actors in a Digital World,” Macedonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA). Skopje, Macedonia: 15 November 2013.

“Terrorists’ Use of Cyber for Istanbul Cooperation Initiative and Gulf States,” NATO Science for Peace and Security, NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism (CoE-DAT). Ankara, Turkey: 3 – 9 November 2013.

“Defending an Open, Global, Secure and Resilient Internet Roundtable,” Council on Foreign Relations. San Francisco, California: 31 October 2013.

“Security Threats From Non-State Actors in Cyberspace,” NATO Advanced Training Course, Regional School on Cyber Defense, NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme of the Emerging Security Challenges Division. Ohrid, Macedonia: 21 – 26 October 2013.

Co-author and Chair, “Dynamics of the Local Situation – Part VI,” Human Aspects of the Operational Environment. NATO HUMINT Center of Excellence (HCOE), NATO Science for Peace and Security, Counter-Terrorism Programme, Emerging Security Challenges Division. NATO Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium: 10 October 2013.

“Information for Strategists’ Speaker Series,” National War College, U.S. National Defense University. Fort McNair, Washington, DC: 25 September 2013.

Cyber Security Dinner with Estonian President Ilves. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Medford, Massachusetts: 26 September 2013.

“Patterns of Hybrid Threats,” COIN Seminar I – ISAF Senior Pre-Deployment Training. NATO Rapid Deployable Corps –Turkey (NRDC-T) and NATO Center of Excellence-Defense Against Terrorism. Istanbul, Turkey: 23 May 2013.

“The Economic / Corruption Element in Afghanistan,” COIN Seminar I – ISAF Senior Pre-Deployment Training. NATO Rapid Deployable Corps –Turkey (NRDC-T) and NATO Center of Excellence-Defense Against Terrorism. Istanbul, Turkey: 22 May 2013.

“The Information / Cyber Element in Afghanistan,”COIN Seminar I – ISAF Senior Pre-Deployment Training. NATO Rapid Deployable Corps –Turkey (NRDC-T) and NATO Center of Excellence-Defense Against Terrorism. Istanbul, Turkey: 21 May 2013

“The Role of New Media and Technology in Terrorist Recruitment in Afghanistan,” COIN Seminar II – ISAF Senior Pre-Deployment Training. NATO Rapid Deployable Corps –Turkey (NRDC-T) and NATO Center of Excellence-Defense Against Terrorism. Istanbul, Turkey: May 2013.

“Strategic Listening: Non-State Armed Groups’ STRATCOM,” NATO COIN Seminar – ISAF Senior Pre-Deployment Training. NATO Rapid Deployable Corps–Turkey (NRDC-T). Istanbul, Turkey: April 2013.

Cyber Aspects of Irregular War.” Baltic Defense College. Tartu, Estonia: April 2013.

“New Media and Technology in Terrorism Recruitment,” NATO Science for Peace Advanced Research Workshop on Recruitment and Root Causes of Terrorism from A Regional Perspective. NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: April 2013.

“Evaluating Efficiencies of Counter Terrorism Efforts,” NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. NATO Science for Peace and Security, Ankara, Turkey: March 2013.

“Terrorists Use of Media,” NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. NATO Science for Peace and Security. Ankara, Turkey: March 2013.

“Terrorists’ Use of Cyber and Technology,” Estonian Defense League – Cyber Defense Unit. Tartu, Estonia: March 2013.

“Terrorists’ Use of the Cyber Domain,” NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. NATO Science for Peace and Security, Ankara, Turkey: February 2013.

“Deterrence, Cyber and Terrorism,” NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. NATO Science for Peace and Security, Ankara, Turkey: February 2013.

Co-author and Chair, “Dynamics of the Local Situation – Part V,” Human Aspects of the Operational Environment, NATO HUMINT Center of Excellence (HCOE). NATO Science for Peace and Security, Counter-Terrorism Programme, Emerging Security Challenges Division, Oradea, Romania: 2013.

Co-author and Chair, “Dynamics of the Local Situation – Part IV,” Human Aspects of the Operational Environment, NATO HUMINT Center of Excellence (HCOE). NATO Science for Peace and Security, Counter-Terrorism Programme, Emerging Security Challenges Division, Bucharest, Romania: December 2012.

Co-author and Chair, “Dynamics of the Local Situation – Part III,” Human Aspects of the Operational Environment. NATO HUMINT Center of Excellence (HCOE), NATO Science for Peace and Security, Counter-Terrorism Programme, Emerging Security Challenges Division. Kitzbuhel, Austria: September 2012.

“The Role of Technology in Terrorist Recruitment,” NATO Science for Peace Advanced Research Workshop on Prevention of Recruitment by Terrorist Organizations. NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: September 2012.

Co-author and Chair, “Dynamics of the Local Situation – Part II,” Human Aspects of the Operational Environment. NATO HUMINT Center of Excellence (HCOE), NATO Science for Peace and Security, Counter-Terrorism Programme, Emerging Security Challenges Division, Transylvania, Romania, June 2012

“Understanding the Role of Non-State Actors in the Information Age – Part II,” Human Aspects of the Operational Environment. NATO HUMINT Center of Excellence (HCOE), NATO Science for Peace, Counter-Terrorism Programme of Work of the Emerging Security Challenges Division, Transylvania, Romania: June 2012.

“Strategies for International Cyberspace Stability: Employing the lessons of deterrence,” CyCon 2012. NATO Cyber Cooperation and Defense Center of Excellence (CCDCOE), Tallinn, Estonia: 5 – 8 June 2012.

“Terrorists’ Use of Cyberspace,” Cyber Terrorism Awareness, Policy and Management-Level. NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism, Ankara, Turkey: May 2012

”Countering Terrorists’ Use of Cyber for Critical Infrastructure Protection,” NATO Science for Peace and Security Advanced Research Workshop on Critical Infrastructure Protection. NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism, Ankara, Turkey: 2 – 3 May 2012.

“Where the Wild Things Truly Are and What They Look Like: Non-state Armed Groups in the Fog of Tweets,” Not Your Dad’s Globalization – Technology and Illicit Networks panel, Power, Principles and Participation in the Global Information Age, International Studies Association Conference. San Diego, California: 1 – 4 April 2012.

”Strategic Communications and Conflict Resolution,” Efficient Crisis Management to Mitigate the Effects of Terrorism. NATO Rapid Deployment Corps-T (NRDC-T) and NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism, Istanbul, Turkey: March 2012.

“Analysis of Terrorist Group Typologies,” Efficient Crisis Management to Mitigate the Effects of Terrorism. NATO Rapid Deployment Corps-T (NRDC-T) and NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Istanbul, Turkey: March 2012.

“Strategic Communications and Conflict Resolution for 21st Century Threats,” NATO Science for Peace and Security. NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: February 2012.

“Intelligence Sharing in the Fog of Tweets: Contemporary 21st century dynamics & emerging threats,” NATO Science for Peace Advanced Research Workshop on Intelligence Sharing in Defense Against Terrorism. NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: 6 – 8 December 2011.

“Technological Elements of Intelligence Sharing in Defense against Terrorism,” NATO Science for Peace Advanced Research Workshop on Intelligence Sharing in Defense Against Terrorism. NATO Centre of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: 1 – 4 November 2011.

“Types of Terrorist Organizations,” NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: May 2011.

“Terrorists’ Use of Cyber,” NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: May 2011.

“Strategic Listening to Combat Terrorism,” NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: May 2011.

“Terrorists’ Communications in Cyberspace,” NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: April 2010, March 2011, April 2011.

“Countering Terrorists’ Communications in Cyberspace,” NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: April 2010, March 2011, April 2011.

“Deterring Cyber Attacks by Terrorist Groups,” NATO Center of Excellence – Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: March 2011.

“Understanding Low Governance States: A quantitative and qualitative assessment of armed groups, governance and intrastate conflict,” Jebsen Center for Counter-Terrorism Studies. Medford, MA. Abstracts and methodology on their website 2005-2010.

“Project on Strategic Space Studies III,” U.S. Air Force Academy Workshop on Cyber Conflict and Terrorism. Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colonial Room, Mayflower Hotel, Washington, D.C.: 29 July 2010.

“The Changing Security Environment – Media and Strategic Communication,” NATO Senior Officer Course. NATO Defense College (NDC). Rome, Italy: March 2010.

“Strategic Listening – Winning the War of Ideas,” NATO International Symposium on Global Terrorism and International Cooperation – III. Bilkent Conference Center, Ankara, Turkey: 15 – 16 March 2010.

Moderator, “Cyber Commons, Engagement and Deterrence,” U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Highlands Forum. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). Washington, D.C.: 10 February 2010.

“Strategic Communications in Combating Terrorism,” Senior Officer Course, NATO Defense College (NDC). Rome, Italy: November 2009.

“Winning Hearts and Minds – Strategic Listening,” NATO Science for Peace Advanced Research Workshop on Strategic Communications. NATO Centre of Excellence - Defense Against Terrorism. Ankara, Turkey: 11 – 12 May 2009.

“Infrastructure Protection, Cyber Crime, Non-State Armed Groups and Irregular Warfare: A View from Brazil.” National Perspectives on Infrastructure Protection, Cyber Crime and the Potential or War in Cyber Space panel, Challenges in International Cyber Security Conference, National Defense University Center for Technology and National Security Policy. Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.: 29 – 30 April 2009.

“Internet Security” and “Human Security.” United Nations Global Creative Leadership Summit. of the Louise Blouin Foundation and UN Office of Partnerships. Metropolitan Club, New York City, New York: 21 – 23 September 2008.

“Contemporary Irregular Threats to U.S. National Security” (co-authored). White Paper for the U.S. President-Elect and U.S. National Security Retreat. Private residence, Southampton, New York: 23 – 24 August 2008.

“Non-State Armed Groups in Cyber-Conflict: Goals, organizations & relationships,” U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Highlands Forum. Aspen Wye River Plantation, Maryland: April 2008.

“Gangs, Criminal Organizations and the State: Lessons from the PCC and the Chinese Triad.” U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Highlands Forum. Aspen Wye River Plantation, Maryland: March 2008.

“Understanding Low Governance States: A quantitative and qualitative assessment of armed groups, governance and intrastate conflict,” Defense Analysis Department, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School: Monterey, CA, 2007.

“Patterns of Insurgencies and the Case of Iraq,” The Christian Science Monitor and BBC News. “The World Today.” Phone interviews. May 2005.

“Armed Groups: A Tier-One Priority,” co-authored. Institute for National Security Studies, U.S. Air Force. Boulder, Colorado: 2004.

“Cameroonian Elections,” African Studies Department, Center for Strategic and International Studies. Washington, D.C., 1994.

 

PhD Disertations
Current Ph.D. Students (as of May, 2014):

Chankin-Gould, Sarah Beila 
Title of Thesis:  "Targeting Armed Violence: Implications of Localized Efforts to Reduce and Mitigate Small Arms Proliferation and Misuse." 

Chindea, Irina 
Title of Thesis:  "An International Relations Theory Approach to Criminal Groups Cooperation."

Hartnett, Michael
Title of Thesis:  "Mobile Telephony Networks and the Democratization of Security in the 21st Century." 

Herbert, Matthew
Title of Thesis:  "The Curse of Geography: The Impact of Cocaine Trafficking on Collective and Political Violence." 

Kenney, Nicholas
Title of Thesis:  "Networks of Rebellion: Nationalist Elites in the British Empire."

Knoll, David
Title of Thesis:  "21st Century Diffusion Patterns: How the Internet Impacts Military Innovation Diffusion Amongst Non-State Armed Groups."

Kosinski, Leonard
Title of Thesis:  "Going Multinational in Defense: A Theory of Integration and Knowledge in Military Strategic Alliances."

Minott, Nichola
Title of Thesis:  "Assessing the Impact of Sudden and Severe Environmental Events on the Dynamics of Ongoing Civil Conflicts: The Case of the 2004 Tsunami on Indonesia and Sri Lanka."

Rasmussen, Ivan
Title of Thesis:  "Rational Nationalism on the Rise: Chinese Public Opinion and Foreign Relations."

Thurber, Richard
Title of Thesis:  "Strategies of Violence and Nonviolence in Revolutionary Movements."

Travayiakis, Marina 
Title of Thesis:  "Discourse Matters: The Impact of Civil-Military Relations on the Post-Conflict Planning Process."

Tsukamoto, Katsuya
Title of Thesis:  "Japan's 'Carrier Revolution' in the Interwar Period."

Wagner, Michael
Title of Thesis:  "Forged under Fire: Sources of Organizational Change in the Armies of Britain and America during the Iraq War."

Wallsh, David
Title of Thesis:  "Switching Sides: Foreign Policy Realignment in Egypt and Syria."