The Sudan: Past, Present, and Future
Interview with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General
The head of the UN in the Sudan shares his vision of a holistic approach to peacekeeping. Peace being “indivisible,” the UN’s priorities should encompass security as well as reconstruction and human rights issues; the south, as well as Darfur and the east.
Does Darfur Have a Future in the Sudan?
In a historic tour de force populated by General Charles Gordon and the Mahdi, sultans and slave-traders, explorers, merchants, and brothel owners, O’Fahey examines the relatively short history of Darfur within the construct of the modern Sudan.
The Problem of Uneven Regional Development in the Northern Sudan
Government failure to allocate resources equitably has led to violence in the northern Sudan, seriously hampering national integration. Development indicators reveal that complaints about marginalization are justified. One model for equal and fair development in the north might be found in the form of an existing agreement that covers transition in the south.
Reform and Progress in the United Nations
Interview with the Former UN Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs
Diplomatic heavyweight and former British ambassador Prendergast reflects on the failures, successes, and responsibilities of the UN; the UN Millennium Summit; the United States’ hasty negotiations over Iraq; the concept of legitimacy in the Middle East; and Turkey’s identity as it moves toward the European Union.
Interview with the Deputy Permanent Representative of Japan to the United Nations
One of Japan’s three ambassadors to the UN speaks to The Forum about Japan’s ambitions to attain a permanent seat in the Security Council and discusses which legal and political challenges lie ahead of those wishing to advance Security Council reform.
Nonproliferation: Monitoring and Enforcement
Interview with the Chairman of the WMD Commission
The former chief UN weapons inspector in Iraq tells The Forum how he Views current concerns over Iran and North Korea NPT compliance, declares his preference for Venus over Mars in diplomatic dealings, contemplates peaceful nuclear energy and its dual use in environmental and security terms, and reflects on his personal legacy in the fields of nonproliferation and diplomacy.
Three years removed from the spotlight, the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission for Iraq occupies a kind of international legal limbo. It should formally be tasked, together with the IAEA, with engaging Baghdad’s new leaders in the process of making a final declaration on the status of its weapons programs.
Returning Order to Postconflict Societies: State-Building, Constitution-Making, and Justice
An Agenda for State-Building in the Twenty-First Century
Despite the expenditure of billions of dollars and deployment of tens of thousands of international peacekeepers, the risk of state-failure in fragile states or in postconflict countries remains high. A comprehensive development strategy with state-building as its ultimate goal requires equal attention to the creation of markets and the constitution of civil society.
From Dayton to Brussels: The Story Behind the Constitutional and Governmental Reform Process in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ten years after the conclusion of the Dayton Peace Accords, Bosnia’s political leaders seek constitutional and governmental reforms aimed at moving the country beyond the structure of the Dayton Agreement and into Euro-Atlantic institutions.
Does Peace Follow Justice or Vice Versa? Plans for Postconflict Justice in Burundi
For a fragile state like Burundi, post-conflict justice needs to foster peace, or, at the very least, not endanger it. The envisaged postconflict justice mechanisms, which include a National Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the unprecedented International Judicial Commission of Inquiry, must be evaluated in light of past experience with similar mechanisms.
Issues and Policy
Transparency: Possibilities and Limitations
Transparency in recent years has developed from a buzzword into a substantive policy tool. Levers such as market pressure, personal and institutional values, and dialogue with society take transparency on an international level beyond mere monitoring to provide actual enforcement.
Preventing Torture: Realities and Perceptions
Torture is a crime in every member state of the OSCE and yet can be observed frequently. Success in enforcing its prohibition requires an understanding of how torturers think—and such insights must be translated into disincentives to torture and real threats of punishment.
Pakistan Through the Lens of the “Triple A” Theory
How has a state whose founding fathers were secular people who believed in rule of law and democracy drifted toward religious extremism and authoritarianism? Three primary factors—variations on the Triple A theory of influence (Allah, the Army, and America)—have led Pakistan down this path: a powerful independent military, the mushrooming of religious militant groups, and the hydra-headed monster that is the intelligence services.
Issues, Problems, and Prospects in Managing the Diplomatic Services in Small States
The foreign policy of small and medium sized states is intrinsically linked with the management of their foreign service. Kenya provides a good illustration of the importance of pursuing a strategic vision for one’s foreign service.
Perspectives: Learning from Disasters
Earthquakes, Diplomacy, and New Thinking in Foreign Policy
The recent devastating earthquake in Southeast Asia hit both sides of the contested Kashmir border, but left President Musharraf’s regime struggling to deal with the disaster’s aftermath. India and Pakistan should learn from the rapprochement that took place between Greece and Turkey in the wake of a 1999 earthquake and seize the opportunity to work toward peace in the region.
Katrina and the Core Challenges of Disaster Response
The weakness in American emergency response capabilities exposed by Hurricane Katrina stresses the need to address core strategic deficiencies on a nation-wide basis. Non-routine emergencies such as major natural disasters, disease outbreaks, or terrorist attacks require the ability to identify novelty factors and improvise accordingly.
The Debacle of Hurricane Katrina: A Human Rights Response
Katrina stands for more than a dodged humanitarian response. The disaster in New Orleans was as much due to the ingrained marginalization of certain social groups as to a whim of nature. If we want to avoid perpetuating such chronic deprivations, it is time to advocate for structural change that must involve the recognition of economic and social rights as basic human rights.
Ethnic Conflicts in Southeast Asia
Edited by Kusuma Snitwongse and W. Scott Thompson
Reviewed by Phar Kim Beng
U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East: The Role of Lobbies and Special Interest Groups
By Janice J. Terry
Reviewed by Brock L. Bevan
Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America’s Growing Dependency on Imported Petroleum
By Michael T. Klare
Reviewed by Elizabeth Chalecki