The Admissions Office has notified the Office of the Registrar/Student Academic Programs that you have been accepted to the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy to begin studies in the Spring 2012 semester. We hope that you will join us and we are looking forward to welcoming you in person during Orientation! Please be aware that the Orientation Schedule included with your acceptance packet has been updated slightly; the revised schedule is posted below. Please note that all entering students are expected to arrive at The Fletcher School by 9:00 AM on Wednesday, January 11; attendance at Orientation is mandatory.
This overview, which is important for you to read, provides the requirements which you need to complete prior to your matriculation in January, as well as general information that we hope will be helpful to you. The overview is divided into four sections: A) Mandatory Orientation Program, B) Pre-Registration Information, C) Academic Information and D) General Information. In some sections you will see referenced a Fletcher Form to be completed; these Fletcher Forms are posted below and should be submitted no later than 5:00 PM on Thursday, December 15, unless otherwise noted.
All of the Fletcher Form submissions should be emailed to the Fletcher Registrar’s Office at FletcherRegistrar@tufts.edu. If you prefer to print and mail the forms in advance of the December 15 deadline, please send to: Registrar’s Office - The Fletcher School, Tufts University 160 Packard Avenue Medford, MA 02155; USA. To fax the forms, please use this fax number: 617-627-4028.
TUFTS.EDU EMAIL ACCOUNT AND STUDENT ID NUMBER
- Beginning on Tuesday, November 15, you should be able to obtain your Tufts.edu email address and your Student ID number. To create your Tufts email address, log in to your Tufts Graduate Application Management account: https://grad.admissions.tufts.edu/app/login.aspx. Click, "Get your Tufts email address," and follow the instructions to create your email address. When you are logged in to create your email address, you will also see your Tufts ID number listed under your name. Please be sure to keep your Tufts Student ID number for your records. You will need your Tufts Student ID to create your e-Billing account, as well as to complete the Fletcher Faces Online Form submission.
- If you have difficulty creating your email account, please contact the Fletcher Admissions Office. Also, if you do not remember your Tufts Graduate Application Management account username and password, please click, "Don’t know your username and password?" and follow the prompts, or email your full name to FletcherAdmissions@tufts.edu and re-request your username and password.
A. MANDATORY ORIENTATION PROGRAM
- The Mandatory Orientation Program, which begins on Wednesday, January 11, and ends on Thursday, January 12, is designed to assist you with your transition to The Fletcher School. Important information is covered during Orientation that is not offered at other times of the year. Please review the Orientation Schedule. The scheduled information sessions will help familiarize you with Fletcher and Tufts, as well as plan your academic program and learn about the services we offer. The social activities offer opportunities to start building relationships with your classmates. Please note on the Orientation Schedule the timing for the Economics Equivalency Exam (9:00-10:00 AM on Thursday, January 12) and the Quantitative Reasoning Equivalency Exams (10:00 AM -12:00 PM on Thursday, January 12). More details about these optional but recommended Equivalency Exams are included in the Academic Information section of the January Orientation Schedule.
B. PRE-REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS
- Final Official Transcripts with Degree Certification Your final official transcripts with certification of degree awarded for each college and university completed must be submitted prior to registration at Fletcher; no later than Thursday, December 15. If your final official transcript copies were not sent as part of the application process, you need to arrange for copies to be sent to the Fletcher Registrar’s Office directly from the Registrar's Office of the institution(s) you attended. Additionally, we suggest that you bring to The Fletcher School several copies of your transcripts. During the year, it may be necessary for you to provide an official transcript, for various reasons, on short notice. The Fletcher Registrar does not provide students with copies of transcripts that were sent to the Admissions Office as part of the application process.
- Academic Advisor Preference Form Your Faculty Academic Advisor assignments are made principally on the basis of a student's academic interests. Please note if we do not receive your completed Academic Advisor Preference Form (attached) by 5:00 PM on Thursday, December 15, the Registrar will assign you a Faculty Academic Advisor. The name of your Faculty Academic Advisor will be included in your Orientation/Registration Packet, which you will receive when you arrive for the Mandatory Orientation Program on January 11. Students are welcome and, indeed, encouraged to consult widely among the faculty when making plans or considering options. You should note that your Faculty Academic Advisor does not need to serve as your Faculty Thesis Advisor. In most cases, they are different. If you wish to change your faculty advisor, you may do so after January 18 (consult the Fletcher Registrar's Office after January 18 to process this request).
Academic Advisor Preference Form
- Fletcher Faces Information The Fletcher School produces Fletcher Faces, a printed booklet available only to members of the Fletcher Community (Fletcher students, faculty and staff) and provides a student’s photo with general biographical information, as well as photos of faculty and staff with background information. Our objective in publishing this information is to enable you to network with your classmates for career, academic and social purposes. Once you have obtained your Student ID number, please complete the Fletcher Faces Online Form, no later than Thursday, December 15, and include a brief biographical statement (approximately 100 -200 words written in the first-person). Feel free to include in your Online Form submission bio details about your pre-Fletcher career, current academic interests, where you completed your undergraduate degree, foreign languages spoken (other than English), your hometown, name of spouse/partner, and if you have a nickname. Please email a picture of yourself to FletcherRegistrar@tufts.edu, which will accompany your Fletcher Faces biographical information. Save the picture you email to us in .jpg format, with a file size of no greater than 3 MB, and save the jpg picture file with your full name and include the jpg file extension (as in: Bosworth, Stephen.jpg). Complete instructions can be found on the Online Form.
- Foreign Language Form Please complete and submit the Foreign Language Exam Form no later than 5:00 PM on Thursday, December 15. All students receiving degrees from The Fletcher School must possess the ability to speak a foreign (second) language sufficiently well to exchange ideas in conversation with a native speaker and the ability to read and restate into English primary materials on contemporary topics involving foreign affairs. Foreign nationals whose native language is not English, and who have received a substantial portion of their education in their native language, may have English accepted as their second language. Generally, these students will have completed the TOEFL (Test of English as a Second Language) exam.
Language Exam Form
- Tufts University Health Service Required Forms Tufts University Health Service requires all graduate students to complete a Health Examination Report, which needs to be signed by you and your health care provider. Fax your completed Health Examination Report directly to the Health Service Office at: 617-627-3592 by 5:00 PM on Thursday, December 15. You may also mail your completed forms to: Tufts University Health Service 124 Professors Row, Medford, MA 02155. Submitting your Health Examination Report will ensure that the University is in compliance with Massachusetts State Law.
C. ACADEMIC INFORMATION
- General Registration Information and Requirements In order to enroll in courses, students must be “cleared" to register. This means the following items must be submitted:
Tuition - paid/financial clearance from the Bursar;
- Health Examination Report, including immunization status (Health Service must approve your submission and notifies the Fletcher Registrar’s Office);
- Final official transcripts sent to the Fletcher Registrar’s Office directly from the Registrar’s Office of the institution(s) that you attended.
- Fletcher classes begin on Wednesday, January 18. The deadline to make final course enrollment selections is 12 noon on Wednesday, January 25. There is no pre-registration at the Fletcher School. During the first week of the term students “shop” for courses and enroll in the courses of interest to them using the Fletcher registration system, HSF Online, when it opens for Spring Semester online course enrollment (January 18-25).
- On Tuesday, January 17, the day before the official start of classes, is a special “Shopping Day” where students can learn more about seminar courses, courses new to the Fletcher curriculum and courses taught by new full-time or adjunct instructors. Students are encouraged to review the past evaluations of courses submitted by students, which are on file in the reference room of Ginn Library.
- Directions about how to use the HSF Online registration system will be included with your Orientation/Registration Packet provided at the Mandatory Orientation Program (January 11-12).
- At Orientation, you will also receive information about Tufts’ new online environment called, “Trunk”, which enables faculty to post syllabi, course material, assignments and messages for students. Please note Trunk is used at the discretion of the instructor (some faculty do not use this system). Only students with enrolled status in a course via the Fletcher registration system, HSF Online, will continue to have access to the course’s site on Trunk during the duration of the course.
- A student who is registered full-time, (taking a minimum of 4 course credits) at the Fletcher School may, with the permission of the Fletcher Professor, register to audit one Fletcher course per semester, at no additional charge. Upon satisfaction of such requirements as the Fletcher Professor may specify, he or she will approve the recording of the audit upon the transcript. Audits are not counted for degree credit nor do they fulfill course distribution requirements. A student who is registered full-time may also, subject to the discretion of the professor, attend a class, which he or she is neither auditing nor taking for credit.
- Faculty Office Hours Faculty members have specified office hours, which are posted on their office doors during the first two weeks of classes. Students must consult with Faculty Academic Advisors, and are also encouraged to consult with other members of the faculty and administration, with regard to their course program.
- Breadth Requirement Information for MALD students: All MALD degree candidates will be required to take:
- Two courses in the Division of Diplomacy, History, and Politics (DHP),
- One course in the Division of International Law and Organization (ILO),
- One course in the Division of Economics and International Business (EIB),
- One course in Quantitative Reasoning.
Specific course requirements/options for each of the divisions (DHP, ILO, EIB), as well as Quantitative Reasoning can be reviewed at: http://fletcher.tufts.edu/Academic/Courses/Breadth-Requirements.
- Equivalency Exam information for E201, E210m and B205/B206
- Equivalency Exams for the Economics divisional requirement and for the Quantitative Reasoning requirement will be offered during Orientation on Thursday, January 12. The Equivalency Exam for Economics (E201) will be 9:00-10:00 AM and the Equivalency Exams for Quantitative Reasoning (E210m and B205/B06) will be 10:00 AM-12:00 PM.
- Students are not required to take the Equivalency Exams, although it is recommended. However if you have a foundation in Economics, Statistics and/or Quantitative Methods you may want to try one or more of these exams in an attempt to either satisfy the Quantitative Reasoning Requirement and/or by being able to take a higher level Economics course in order to satisfy the Economics breadth requirement.
- MALD students who pass the E201 Equivalency Exam can immediately take a higher course to satisfy their economics breadth requirement.
- MALD Students who pass the E210m Equivalency Exam have satisfied the Quantitative Reasoning Requirement and if they enroll in and pass E211m then they will have satisfied the Economics breadth requirement.
- MALD students taking and passing one or both of the Quantitative Reasoning Equivalency Exams will satisfy the Quantitative Reasoning requirement.
- If you plan to take the Economics and/or the Quantitative Reasoning Equivalency Exams, please note:
- A non-scientific calculator is allowed for the B205/B206 exam.
- No calculator is allowed for either the E201 or E210m exams.
- For all exams, no notes, books or computers are allowed.
- Prior equivalency exams are not available for review.
- The faculty members responsible for the exams have submitted brief write-ups, included below, that address the content and format of their respective exams.
- Results for all examinations will be made available by the Registrar’s Office. As soon as we have the results from each individual exam, you will be notified by email.
Economics Breadth Requirement
Each MALD student is EIB E201: Introduction to Economic Theory. Students who pass the economics equivalency test for EIB E201 shall not be required to take either course but shall instead be required to take one of the following courses:
• EIB E211m: Microeconomics and EIB E210m: Quantitative Reasoning
• EIB E213: Econometrics
• EIB E220: International Trade and Investment
• EIB E230: International Finance
• EIB E240: Development Economics
• EIB E241: Development Economics: Policy Analysis
• EIB E242: Development Economics: Micro Perspectives
• EIB E246: Natural Resource and Environmental Economics
Note: Students who pass the E201 equivalency test can immediately take a higher course (see list above) to satisfy their economics breadth requirement. MALD Students who pass the E210m equivalency test have satisfied the Quantitative Reasoning Requirement and if they enroll in and pass E211m then they will have satisfied the Economics breadth requirement.
Students may not use E213: Econometrics to meet both the Quantitative Reasoning and the Economics breadth requirement. However, they may choose which requirement it will satisfy.
EIB E201 Equivalency Exam – Professor Carsten Kowalczyk
Q: What is the purpose of the exam?
A: The exam serves two purposes:
It is a diagnostic tool to provide information to you about which level of Economics courses you might consider entering. Also, when passed, the exam offers equivalency for E201, which is required if you offer one of the following fields in economics: International Trade and Commercial Policies, International Monetary Theory and Policy, or Development Economics.
Q: Who should take the exam?
A: Anyone who plans to satisfy the Economics breadth requirement by taking one of the listed Economics courses that can be taken to satisfy this requirement (for MALD students).
Q: What does the exam cover?
A: Microeconomic and Macroeconomics at a level corresponding to Alan Stockman: Introduction to Economics; Gregory Mankiw: Principles of Economics; or Fischer, Dornbusch, and Schmalensee: Economics. Questions are usually, but not necessarily, within the areas of supply and demand, consumer theory, technology, cost theory, monopoly, labor economics, national income accounting, savings and investment theory, economic growth, fiscal and monetary policies.
Q: What is the format of the exam?
A: 10 multiple-choice questions.
Quantitative Reasoning Breadth Requirement
All MALD students are required to either take coursework or gain equivalency in quantitative methods. Students can satisfy this breadth requirement by taking either:
• EIB B205: Data Analysis and Statistical Methods
• EIB B206: Data Analysis and Statistical Methods for Business
• DHP P203: Analytic Frameworks for International Public Policy Decisions;
• EIB E213: Econometrics;
• EIB E210m: Quantitative Methods or
• EIB B262/Marketing Research Analysis.
The quantitative reasoning requirement is satisfied if students pass either the B205/B206 or E210m equivalency examination.
EIB E210m: Quantitative Methods Module – Professor Deborah Menegotto
Quantitative analysis is very important in the study of international affairs, and quantitative tools are used extensively in the study of economics at the Fletcher School. Therefore, every student must take at least one course credit that teaches these skills. Specifically, if you offer two fields in economics, you should either pass the Quantitative Reasoning placement exam, or successfully complete the Quantitative Methods Module, EIB E210m, which is offered in the fall semester. Topics covered in this ninety-minute equivalency exam include: logarithmic and exponential functions, differential calculus (both univariate and multivariate), finding the extreme points of functions, and constrained optimization. For more details on the material covered, consult the textbook for the
Quantitative Methods Module, EIB E210m, Mathematical Methods for Economics, 2nd edition, by Michael Klein (Addison Wesley, 2002), with special attention to chapters 3, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11.
EIB B205: Statistical Methods – Professor Robert Nakosteen
Core material covered in B205: Data Analysis and Statistical Methods and B206: Data Analysis and Statistical Methods for Business
The outline below details material that will be covered on the equivalency exam.
The chapter numbers refer to the following text:
Text: Levine, et al, Statistics for Managers Using Microsoft Excel, 5th edition, Prentice Hall, 2008,
Basic statistics and concepts: data collection and the nature of numerical information; descriptive measures of central tendency, dispersion, and skew. Chapters 1 and 3.
The concepts and rules of probability: Chapter 4.
Discrete probability distributions: The expected value operator. Chapter 5 (section 5.1 only). For those seeking B206 equivalency include: Binomial Probability Distribution. Chapter 5 (sections 5.1 and 5.3) The normal distribution and sampling distributions: Chapter 6 (skip sections 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, and 6.6) and chapter 7.
Statistical inference I: Confidence intervals. Chapter 8 (skip sections 8.3 and 8.5).
Statistical inference II: Hypothesis testing. Chapter 9 (skip section 9.5).
Statistical inference III: Correlation and regression Analysis. Chapters 13 and 14.
B205/B206 Statistical Methods for Business - Useful Expressions
- Foreign Language Information All Fletcher students whose native language is English must demonstrate the ability to read and comprehend and to speak a second language by passing the Foreign Language Reading Comprehension, as well as the Oral Examinations offered by the Fletcher School. Reading Comprehension Exams are offered three times each year in September, February, and April. The best way to prepare for the Reading Comprehension Exam is to read and summarize into English foreign journal and newspaper articles on contemporary topics involving foreign affairs. Oral Examinations may be scheduled with one of our approved oral examiners at any time during a student’s enrollment at Fletcher. However, we encourage all students to fulfill this requirement as soon as possible. For specific questions regarding the foreign language requirement, please contact Ann Marie Decembrele, Associate Registrar, at: email@example.com
- Spring Semester Course Listing and Schedule and Spring 2012 Academic Calendar For your files, here is the Fletcher Academic Calendar with the Spring 2012 academic dates and deadlines. Also, below is the Spring 2012 Course Listing and Schedule. Please note that the Spring 2012 Course Listing and Schedule is preliminary and subject to change. As changes occur, we will provide updates to you.
Spring 2012 Course Listing and Schedule
2011 - 2012 Academic Calendar
- Course Descriptions You will receive a copy of the annual Fletcher Course Bulletin, which provides course descriptions and faculty bios, included in your Orientation/Registration packet. Any updates will be included in the Course Bulletin Addendum that will be available during Spring Semester online course enrollment (January 18-25).
D. GENERAL INFORMATION
- Tuition and Fees for AY 2011-12 Tuition bills are generated electronically through Tufts e-Bill. Your first e-Bill will be generated in early December and you are required to “enroll’ in the e-Billing system once you have obtained their Student ID number (see below). Tufts e-Bill is not for use in billing 3rd party sponsors, scholarship organizations or grant administrators. If a third party sponsors you (meaning that tuition and/or fees should be billed directly to the sponsor rather than yourself), please make sure that the Bursar's Office has the proper documentation. This documentation would include what is to be billed to the sponsor, the duration of the sponsorship and the sponsor’s billing address. The following staff handles third-party billing:
Please contact the designated staff listed above to determine if they have the appropriate documentation on file so that they can bill your third party. You may also contact them by phone via the Front Desk at Dowling Hall at 617-627-2000. Since you are ultimately responsible for your bills and making sure that they are paid on time, you will always receive a copy of your e-Bill. It is your responsibility to check it for accuracy and ensure that it is paid in full.
The University participates in a tuition payment plan administered by Sallie Mae. Students have the option to spread tuition payment out over the duration of a semester (5 monthly payments) or year (10 monthly payments). More information can be found at https://tuitionpay.salliemae.com/tufts. Applications must be done online. Note, if you are to utilize this payment plan, there is a deadline associated with your contract; contact the Bursar’s Office for this information at: http://uss.tufts.edu/bursar/BursarContact.asp.
- E-mail Tufts University provides students with an email account. It is required that all students sign up for an email account since all official Tufts correspondence will be sent to your Tufts email address. We highly recommend that you obtain your email account as soon as possible as it is the gateway to obtaining your Student ID number (required for e-bill). Once you set up your email account, you may access it directly at: https://exchange.tufts.edu/. If you wish to set up forwarding, vacation notices, etc., of your Tufts email to another email account, you may do so by going to: https://tuftstools.tufts.edu/. If you have a Smartphone or other mobile device that you want to set up to receive your Tufts email, visit https://wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/display/infoexchange/md-setup. For more information about your Tufts email account, call Eaton Computer Lab at 617-627-3701, or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Tufts Student ID number (required for e-Bills) When obtaining your Tufts Email you will be provided with your Student ID number. Please write this down and keep it in a secure place so that you can obtain and use it when needed.
- Student Housing Students interested in living in Blakeley Hall during the spring semester should contact the Resident Directors at Blakeley-RD@tufts.edu—the sooner, the better.
- Student Mail All students will be issued a student mailbox in Cabot Hall in order to receive campus mail. Those residing in Blakeley Hall will be able to have their U.S. mail delivered to their Fletcher mailbox. If you live off-campus, you must use your local address as your postal mailing address. Blakeley Hall residents who plan to ship boxes or trunks should address them to the address listed below. Please do not mail large packages to the Fletcher School, as our mailroom is small and cannot handle such parcels; the Hill Hall Package Room can receive larger packages.
The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
c/o Hill Hall Package Room
Medford, MA 02155
- Discounted computer and software purchases Through a special license agreement with vendors such as Microsoft, IBM/Lenovo, Apple, etc, Tufts is able to offer its students, faculty, and staff a selection of computers and Microsoft software titles at significant discounts. To make purchases at discounted prices, you will need your “UTLN” (webmail login name) and your webmail password. To find out more, visit https://student.support.tufts.edu/vendors.php
- Health Insurance All students must have adequate health insurance, as determined by the Tufts University Health Service, in order to enroll at the Fletcher School. A health insurance fee is automatically charged to all enrolled students. Students who have comparable US insurance may have this fee waived by the Director of the Health Services. If you choose not to enroll in the health insurance program, you must waive the insurance; please contact the Health Service 617-627-3350 about the waive deadline date and if you have any questions about the insurance plan. Please be aware that foreign insurance coverage as well as some U.S. insurance plans are often not considered comparable coverage.
The 2011-2012 student health insurance plan will cost the student $1,723.00 annually. For those starting in January 2012, the plan cost will be: $1065.00 The plan maximum is $500,000. Each student will have the opportunity to purchase a supplemental catastrophic insurance plan that will provide additional coverage up to a plan maximum of $250,000. Given the high cost of medical care in the United States, students may want to consider the additional coverage. Insurance coverage is from January 15, 2012 to August 30, 2012 for students who begin in January 2012.
b. Insurance Coverage for Dependents
Arrangements can be made with the Health Insurance Company to insure a spouse and/or children. The 2011-2012 rates are $5,139.00 for spouse and $2,287.00 to add a child(ren). For those starting in January 2012 who would like coverage for a spouse and/or child(ren) please contact the Health Services for pricing information. Dependent spouse or children benefits will be considered for payment on a "First Manifesting Basis." This means that charges will be considered as expenses eligible for coverage only for accident or sickness claims, which happen on or after the date the insurance policy became effective. Dependents may also purchase the supplemental catastrophic insurance.
All students who are on a J-1 visa that is sponsored by either Tufts University or The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy must purchase the health plan offered by Tufts University for themselves and dependents.
Mandatory Comprehensive Health Service Fee
In addition to health insurance, all students must pay a student comprehensive health service fee of $668.00 For those who begin in January 2012, the fee will be $334.00. This fee is not insurance coverage but it allows the student to use the Tufts University Health Service for routine illnesses. This fee may not be waived. Access to the Tufts University Health Service is not available to a spouse or children. The Tufts University comprehensive health service fee covers students for unlimited primary care and walk-in visits, allergy injections, an annual flu shot, the Counseling Center, and the first three psychiatric visits. There are sometimes other additional charges for which students are responsible (i.e. lab tests). These charges appear on the student's Bursar bill. In all cases, the Health Service can provide you with an itemized bill and help in obtaining reimbursement from your insurance company.
Aetna Dental Plan
In addition to health insurance, students can purchase dental insurance through the health services office. Dental insurance is purchased separately and is a separate policy. One does not have to enroll in the health insurance plan offered by the University in order to purchase the dental insurance plan. The cost of "Aetna Dental PPO" is $440 per student only, $452 for spouse only and $500 child(ren). The cost for the Dental “Advantage Plan” is approximately $226 per student. For the student and one dependent, the cost for dental insurance is approximately $443.00 and the cost for dental insurance for the student and two dependents is approximately $736.00. In addition to this dental plan, there is a dental plan (called Vital Savings) that costs approximately $25.00 for the student, $44.00 for the student and one dependent and $63.00 for the student and two dependents. Please contact Health Service for more details about this discounted plan and its coverage: http://ase.tufts.edu/healthservices/default.htm.
Delta Dental – Dental Plan of Massachusetts In addition to the Dental Plan offered by Aetna through the University Health Services Office, Tufts University has teamed up to offer an optional and affordable dental insurance plan. The plan is the Delta Dental Preferred Provider Option (PPO). The benefits offered include in and out-of-network coverage for preventive care, and discounts on basic and major services. Rates are relatively low at $290.52 and $656.76 for one year coverage for individual and family coverage, respectively. Please contact Health Service Office about the coverage period and the deadline for signing up. Sign up at http://fletcher.tufts.edu/Orientation/Requirements/~/media/Fletcher/Microsites/Orientation/pdfs/Tufts-University-Student-Dental-Enrolllment-Form-new.pdf. Administration of the plan will be handled by Crosby Benefits Systems. Crosby requires that you complete an additional form and provide payment by check or automatic deduction from your bank account to initiate coverage. The forms can be sent to Crosby as an electronic attachment scan that is then emailed to email@example.com or sent via fax to 617-928-0001. Forms can also be mailed to: Crosby Benefit Systems; PO Box 98140; Boston, MA 02298-1401. We hope this dental insurance option will help meet the needs of some of our students. If you have questions about this dental plan and/or the enrollment process, please contact either Kathryn Lange, Associate Dean, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences or Mark Gonthier, Associate Dean of Student Affairs, School of Dental Medicine.
If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to email us at the Fletcher Registrar’s Office (FletcherRegistrar@tufts.edu), or call us at 617-627-3055.