DHP D200: DIPLOMACY: HISTORY, THEORY, AND PRACTICE
Diplomacy is one of the very constitutive “orders” of the international system, a mainstay of civilization itself. This course examines classical diplomacy and its evolution in the West, the “integration” of regional diplomatic cultures through the League of Nations and United Nations, the establishment of foreign ministries and bilateral embassies, the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961), the professionalization of diplomatic services, “summit” diplomacy and the use of special envoys, diplomatic ceremony and protocol, the nuances of diplomatic language, public diplomacy and social media, educational exchanges and intercultural dialogues, engagement with non-state actors, and the question of the future of formal diplomacy in a networked global society. Not offered AY 2017-2018
DHP D203: US FOREIGN POLICY: PROBLEMS IN SECURITY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE RULE OF LAW
The course is designed to immerse students in the substance and dynamics of US foreign policy decision-making. The class will examine factors contributing to specific international crises, and will debate the real-time choices that faced US government officials who had to address them. Students will develop an understanding of the dynamics of the crises studied; acquire knowledge of the options considered by US decision-makers in framing their policy responses; be exposed to the domestic and international political environment and pressures under which US policymakers made their decisions; and study the interaction between politics and law in US foreign policy making.
DHP D204: U.S. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY
This seminar will be a study in depth of the theory and practice of United States public diplomacy. By means of lectures, readings, class discussion, and research papers, students will explore issues of current relevance, including: public diplomacy’s challenges in dealing with foreign criticism of the United States; terrorism and radicalism issues; structural and management issues including the role of the Pentagon; the role of the private sector; creative uses of modern information technology; and personnel issues. Special attention will be given to understanding the challenges facing public diplomacy professionals doing their jobs at embassies abroad. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D205: GLOBAL MARITIME AFFAIRS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SECURITY, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AT SEA
Over 90% of international trade is carried by sea – the lifeblood of globalization. The world’s oceans also present a myriad of opportunities and challenges in international affairs, such as territorial disputes, opening Arctic sea routes, piracy, terrorism, strained fisheries, mineral and energy extraction, marine disasters, whaling, maritime security and technological advances in maritime domain awareness. The course will explore these issues and other maritime topics based on individual student interests. Course format is lecture and discussion. Writing and speaking skills receive considerable attention. No prerequisites other than a lively curiosity.
DHP D209: NEGOTIATING INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP
This module explores the nature of leadership in the international context. Drawing upon academic literature and case studies of influential leaders, the class introduces the various models of leadership and the diverse functions of a leader across a range of international environments and organizations. The basic goals of the course are three fold: 1) to enable students to understand the nature of leadership across different sectors in different international settings; 2) to give students the tools to analyze various leadership situations and problems; and 3) to help students develop leadership skills in light of their own leadership ideas and ambitions. A key premise of this class is that leadership is an exercise in negotiation, a task of influencing other persons to act in desired ways for the benefit of an organization or group. The act of leadership on the global stage – in multilateral organizations, multinational corporations, international non-profits, and diplomatic posts – is particularly complex, and it requires an appreciation of different concepts and cultures of leadership. A key aim of this module, then, is to understand how leaders exercise influence inside and outside their organizations, particularly within the international environment. . A student’s final evaluation in the course will be based on a paper of not more than 3000 words (65%) and participation in class sessions (35%). The course has no required pre- requisites, although a basic knowledge of negotiation theory and practice is recommended. Cross-listed as EIB B295m. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D210: THE ART AND SCIENCE OF STATECRAFT
It is easy to develop explanations for foreign policy decision-making; it is quite another thing to act as the policymaker. What are the available tools of influence that an international actor can use to influence other actors in the world? When are these tools likely to work? The goal of this course is to offer an introduction into the world of policymaking and statecraft. Topics include using coercion and inducement; intervening in the domestic politics of another country; the nature of public and private diplomacy; and case studies of notable policy successes and failures from the past. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D211: POLITICS OF STATECRAFT
Foreign policy is not immune from public debate, political gridlock, or human frailties. Building on The Art and Science of Statecraft, this course examines the political environment in which foreign policy is crafted and implemented. Topics include the role of public opinion, interest groups, bureaucracies, think tanks, and experts in the formulation of policy. Case studies of notable successes and failures of the policy process will be discussed. There will also be frequent in-class exercises in the various arts associated with the promotion of policy. Open to students who have completed D210. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D213: INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE
This course will offer a practical and in-depth analysis of the complex issues and skills needed to engage in humanitarian work in field settings. Through presentations offered by the faculty of the Humanitarian Studies Initiative and guest speakers who are experts in their topic areas, students will gain familiarity with the primary frameworks in the humanitarian field (human rights, livelihoods, Sphere standards, international humanitarian law) and will focus on practical issues that arise in the field, such as rapid assessments, application of minimum standards for humanitarian response, and operational approaches to relations with the military in humanitarian settings. Each student will be part of a team representing an international humanitarian non-governmental organization. Topics covered: Humanitarian response community and history; International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law; Sphere standards and sectoral applications (shelter, water and sanitation, food security, health); Civil-military relations, media skills, logistics, and budgeting; Monitoring and evaluation, accountability, and livelihoods; Personal security, mental health, stress, and teamwork; and Humanitarian technology. IMPORTANT TO NOTE: These topics will provide the foundational knowledge and skills needed to perform successfully during a three-day intensive field simulation of a humanitarian crisis that usually takes place at the end of April/early May. There is a $300 fee to cover camping gear hire, food, and other equipment costs. This course is cross-listed with The Fletcher School (D213) and enrollment is limited to 15 Friedman students and to 15 Fletcher students. Priority enrollment for Friedman is given to: 1) FPAN students pursuing the Humanitarian Assistance Specialization, 2) MAHA students 3) Graduating and Second-Year students, 4) First-Year students. Pre-requisite: Graduate standing or instructor consent. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D216M: SOCIAL NETWORKS IN ORGANIZATIONS – PART ONE
The growing use of social media in political movements and the notoriety of the Snowden revelations and the NSA’s big-data network-tracking abilities have fueled a fast-growing interest in understanding social networks of all types. Participants in this course will examine the evolution of the study of networks and will learn how to analyze an array of social, organizational, and professional networks—including their own. Individual and team assignments will further students’ understanding of the concepts, as well as demonstrate the power of a ‘networked’ class. The final deliverables will include blog postings and a debate on the importance and future of both social networks and enabling technologies. One-half credit.
DHP D217M: SOCIAL NETWORKS IN ORGANIZATIONS – PART TWO
This course, a continuation of D216m, will be a seminar covering how to do a complete Social Network Analysis (SNA) project of their own choosing, Students can do either a stand-alone SNA project, either individually or in groups, or an individual project as part of their MALD/MIB capstone project or doctoral dissertation. Initial sessions will introduce the major concepts and techniques of designing and completing a successful SNA, from data collection through analysis. Subsequent sessions will be shaped by the actual projects themselves, with individuals and teams sharing their progress. Open to students who have completed D216m or a graduate-level course in SNA approved by the instructor. One-half credit.
DHP D218: INFLUENCING POLICY AND THE GLOBAL DEBATE: WRITING ANALYSIS AND OPINION
Informing and influencing the course of public affairs requires an ability to write clearly, explain accurately and be convincing. It also requires an understanding of your audience, including its cultural values and how to reach it through social media. Whether you choose to go into government, the non-profit sector, business or the news media itself, you will have to master these skills for success in the public arena, be it to lead or to affect policies. In this course, we will study how to write analysis, which generally attempts to address questions of why or how or to explain something, and opinion, which focuses more what should be done. Opinion can include value judgments, but you must back both analysis and opinion with facts. You also must provide context and be complete, weighing contradictory but relevant information. You will be asked in the first class to submit a theme, region or country on which throughout the course you will write disciplined, well-written essays of 800 to 1,200 words. Your pieces must have some relevance to public policy today, but can focus on economic, legal, historical, military, business or political matters.
DHP D220: PROCESSES OF INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION
This course explores the processes, rather than specific substantive issues, of international negotiation. Using exercises and simulations, it examines the nature of conflict in the international arena; the special characteristics of negotiation in the international setting; negotiation dynamics; the roles of culture, power, and psychological processes; and the strategy and tactics of international negotiation. Special problems of multilateral negotiation, and the follow-up and implementation of negotiated agreements are also examined. Four sections with a maximum of 30 students each. Students enroll in section 1. After the registration period ends, the Registrar will assign students to one of the four sections.
DHP D221: INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION
Mediation is one of many international intervention approaches to prevent, resolve, or recover from political violence. It is practiced by individuals, international and transnational organizations, small and large states, and in bilateral or multilateral contexts. This seminar focuses on the ways in which mediators in the international arena carry out their third-party roles. Topics to be covered include: gaining entry; developing a strategy; gaining and using leverage; and managing complexity. The seminar relies on detailed, extensive case study analysis to understand how international mediators operate in real-time, complex environments. Open to students who have completed D220 or equivalent. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D223: THEORIES OF CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION
This course offers an overview of theories of conflict and approaches to conflict resolution. It surveys theories of conflict that originate in various disciplines including sociology, political science, international relations, social psychology, and law. It presents multiple levels of analysis to explain both inter-state and intra-state conflicts. It also reviews approaches that seek to settle and to transform the relationships of disputing parties. This course will provide an in- depth and a critical look at leading theories of conflict and conflict resolution and will explore some of the major theoretical debates in the field.
DHP D224: NEGOTIATION AND MEDIATION IN THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT: PAST LESSONS AND FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES
This course integrates negotiation and conflict resolution theory, international negotiation and mediation practice, and area studies within the Israeli- Palestinian conflict. Students will serve as active participants in their own learning by examining their ideas with people who have participated in negotiations or mediation in various rounds of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict or senior scholars who have studied this conflict. The first half of the course will explore the Israeli and Palestinian narratives and will review the conflict’s historical developments since 1948. It will also review briefly main concepts and theories of negotiation, mediation, and conflict resolution. The second half relies heavily on high- ranking guest speakers from the U.S., Israel, and the Palestinian territories in an effort to give students formal and informal opportunities to interact with professionals who have had first-hand experience negotiating or mediating in this conflict. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D225: CONFLICT RESOLUTION PRACTICE
This seminar focuses on three crucial aspects of conflict resolution practice: conducting a conflict assessment; facilitating discussions and consensus building processes in the context of intergroup conflict; and designing and conducting effective dialogues between contending identity groups. The seminar will emphasize the applied aspects of these processes and will use demonstrations, films, exercises, and guest lecturers. It will culminate with organizing and conducting a problem-solving workshop under the leadership of the instructor. Open to students who have completed D223. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D230: HUMANITARIAN ACTION IN COMPLEX EMERGENCIES
This multi-disciplinary course covers a broad range of subjects, including the evolution of the international humanitarian system, the political economy of conflicts and humanitarian aid, analytical and normative frameworks for humanitarian action, and a variety of programmatic topics. By the end of this course you will be aware of the historical, legal, social, political and moral context of both the causes and responses to complex humanitarian emergencies, and have a working knowledge of the principles and standards for performing humanitarian response to complex humanitarian emergencies. This course is cross-listed with the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy.
DHP D231: GENDER AND HUMAN SECURITY IN TRANSITIONAL STATES AND SOCIETIES
This course uses gender as a key analytical tool to examine states and societies transitioning from large-scale social and political upheaval. It explores key gender dimensions of such transitions and their implications for states, societies and citizens, including those that have moved toward more democratic forms of governance and those that transitioned (or appear to be transitioning) into more authoritarian or fundamentalist regimes. The course balances a population-focused approach (examining the evolving roles, expectations, and norms for men, women, boys and girls) with an analysis of the health, humanitarian, development, security, justice/legal, and governance sectors.
DHP D232: GENDER, CULTURE AND CONFLICT IN COMPLEX HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES
This course examines situations of armed conflict, civilian experiences of these crises, and the international and national humanitarian and military responses to these situations from a gender perspective and highlights the policy and program implications that this perspective presents. Topics include gender analyses of current trends in armed conflict and terrorism; links among war economies, globalization and armed conflict; the manipulation of gender roles to fuel war and violence; gender and livelihoods in crises; masculinities in conflict; sexual and gender-based violence; women's rights in international humanitarian and human rights law; and peacebuilding. Case studies are drawn from recent and current armed conflicts worldwide. This course is cross-listed with the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy.
DHP D233: MIGRATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS: MOVEMENT, COMMUNITY, AND MOBILIZATION
This course explores the complex relationships among nationality, citizenship, migration, and human rights. The questions animating this course are the degree to which rights are inherent in human identity and the primary factors that define, promote, protect, or violate the rights of people who move. In considering these concerns, the course explores the nature of social and political community, ethics, and political rationality. The teaching begins with an historical review of the emergence of ideas of universal rights and the universalisation of the nation-state. It then discusses international and regional mechanisms outlining the rights of international migrants and questions the presumed importance of law, documentation and nationality in claiming practical rights and protections. The course concludes with an exploration of human rights practice in cities and towns in the United States, Africa, and elsewhere. The final section looks at strategies for claiming, enforcing, or restricting rights and their implications for a broader understanding of rights. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D235: INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODS
This course is intended for students who are new to research, and is an introduction to designing, conducting and writing up a research project. We begin with identifying your main research question— how it is drawn from and relates to the broader field of scholarship and theory. Then we explore the design of research protocols, how the choice of methods relates to the research question, and the art of data collection and fieldwork. Course objectives are to increase your: (1) understanding of methodologically sound and theoretically relevant field research; (2) skills in conducting field work; (3) critical awareness of the ethical and practical problems of field research; (4) ability to evaluate the scientific merits of published materials; and (5) understanding of how research relates to policy and the work of practitioners.
DHP D236: MIGRATION AND GOVERNANCE IN THE GLOBAL SOUTH
Nowhere are the impacts of human mobility more visible than in the global ‘south,’ where movements of people in search of profit, protection, and passage continue to shape political, economic, and social configurations. In an era of globalization and urbanization, such mobility can be simultaneously destabilizing and empowering; challenging socio-economic and political structures in ways resulting in both marginalization and opportunities. This course is designed as an ongoing conversation covering migration dynamics and how we understand how and who controls spaces and the people occupying or moving through them. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D237: NUTRITION IN COMPLEX EMERGENCIES: POLICIES, PRACTICE AND DECISION-MAKING
The course will introduce students to the concept of Public Nutrition and examine its central role in complex emergencies. The implications of the Public Nutrition approach for assessment and analysis, policy development, program design and implementation will be examined. This will provide an understanding of; the causes and nutritional outcomes of humanitarian crises and complex emergencies (malnutrition, morbidity and mortality). The course has a field-oriented focus based on a wide range of recent and past food and nutrition crises ranging. The course reviews international response strategies, nutrition programs and relevant policies; and incorporates relevant applied research. The course provides the opportunity for active class participation drawing upon the actual work experience of the students and applying a range of up-to-date case-study materials based on current humanitarian crises. This course is cross-listed with the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy.
DHP D238: CURRENT ISSUES IN GLOBAL IMMIGRATION
This is a comparative immigration politics and policy course, with a focus on national immigration policies and the foreign policy, security and development implications of migration. Since 2015 when the migration crisis took hold in Europe, long-standing debates over how to reconcile for-eign-policy interests, national security concerns, and the humanitarian and development implica-tions of migration have re-emerged at a global scale. This course takes a comparative perspective to these issues, comparing the experience of the US, EU, other OECD and selected middle- and low-income countries. The first half of the course explores general issues, the second half focuses more closely on specific countries. It is an introductory level course, intended for students with little or no background in comparative policy or global migration, beyond a familiarity with cur-rent events expected of any Fletcher student.
DHP D239: FORCED MIGRATION
The course is an exploration of how forced displacement, which includes trafficking, and other forms of involuntary migration, relates to the broader spectrum of migration stemming from persecution,development, natural disaster, environmental change, and impoverishment. We begin with an analysis of the root causes of migration, then review the international legal framework, and analyze asylum and refugee policies in different national contexts. The course will explore a range of critical issues including current controversies about climate change and migration, urbanization, trafficking, and new approaches to humanitarian assistance and protection. The course focuses on refugee and IDP movements, but adopts a wider perspective so as to address all kinds of global movements
DHP D260: SOUTHWEST ASIA: HISTORY, CULTURE, AND POLITICS
This course is a survey of Southwest Asian institutional history from the end of World War 1 to 2015. The course is designed for professional students. It examines the complexity of the region, with special emphasis on the impact of modern technical revolutions with special emphasis devoted to the oil industry in Southwest and Central Asia. Topics include Great Power competition in the region; the influence of European and Turko-Muslim cultures on contemporary events, Colonialism, the regional context for the formation of nation states, post WWII Globalization, the regional impact of explosive social change in the Digital era, Fundamentalism, and chaotic conditions at the turn of the 21st century. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP D261: AFGHANISTAN AND THE U.S. "WAR OF NECESSITY"
Despite a seemingly brilliant victory in the early days of the post-9/11 era, America’s campaign in Afghanistan has become the longest war in US history, with currently no end in sight. Balancing history, theory, and policy this seminar investigates the mechanisms and critical junctures that led to this entanglement. It explores the collision between the US-led coalition’s objectives, the lasting legacies of the Cold War and the specificities of Afghanistan’ society and regional dynamics. All along, we examine critical junctures, successes, failures, and ambiguities in light of scholarly disputes and policy debates. Themes addressed include the war on terror, South Asia’s geopolitics, democratization, state-building, insurgencies, and strategy.
DHP D262: U.S. POLICY IN SOUTH ASIA
Course description coming soon.
DHP D263: THE ARABS AND THEIR NEIGHBORS
With a particular focus on the Arab world and the Levant, this course examines the evolution of nation-states in the Middle East from colonial rule to the present. Themes addressed include the rise of nationalism and pan-Arabism, ideologies of internal unity and regional tensions, Islam as a political force, globalization, reform and radicalism, the Arab revolts, and the search for new alternatives.
DHP D264: GEOPOLITICS OF ENERGY IN EURASIA
This course deals with security issues related to the production, distribution and consumption of oil and gas in the post-Soviet Union period. The political instability of Eurasia following the collapse of Soviet Union has threatened the supply of oil and gas for the developing economies of the nations of Eurasia. To understand the importance of this issue, this course will examine how the distribution of energy has intensified the competition between nations in this region. One example of this is the Russian annexation of the eastern Ukraine. It is also particularly important to understand the impact of accelerating technological changes taking place both in Eurasia and the rest of the world. The range of the subject matter continues in the second portion of the course where the discovery of oil in Arctic region and the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in Australia change the global market for oil and gas. Course concludes with a study of the geopolitical struggles over the energy resources of the South China Sea.
DHP D265: THE GLOBALIZATION OF POLITICS AND CULTURE FOR IRAN, AFGHANISTAN AND PAKISTAN
This course explores the consequences of accelerated technological change in the geopolitically important region of Southwest Asia that includes the modern states and societies of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. Each of these states protests their current position. For Iran the dispute with the outside world is it does not occupy a position commensurate with its power. With Afghanistan the difficulty with modernity is that external interference has not enabled it to consolidate power in the face of internal and external forces. In the case of Pakistan the sudden establishment of the state in 1947in a world dominated by Western powers has left the country in a competition with an external power, India, under condition of great inequality. Special efforts will be made to understand this region’s problems with terrorism especially in the case of Afghanistan and Pakistan. For India, the major subject of analysis will be how the state is going to deal with being surrounded by hostile powers both on land and sea. Specific topics studied are the future of Iran outside its national border that includes Syria and Yemen. This course will provide in-depth knowledge of ethnic and sectarian violence, modern educational change, social and cultural reaction to radical urbanization, creation of a modern legal system, transfer of modern technology, and foreign policies of major state and non-state powers.
DHP D267: THE GLOBALIZATION OF CENTRAL ASIA AND THE CAUCASUS
The course establishes a basis for understanding modern political and cultural changes in Central Asia and the Caucasus from a global point of view. There are three major reasons for taking on this task. The first deals with the political instability that took place in Eurasia after the collapse of the Soviet Union. That event brought on a period of political weakness that is not over by 2015. This increased the threats to the production of oil and gas from a region of the world that contained about seventy percent of the world’s supply of oil and gas. The third development generating Eurasian insecurity is a consequence of the near joint decision by India and China to engage in rapid economic development during the last decade of the twentieth century. This placed the two countries containing near a third of humanity in need of major imports of oil and gas. In turn this erected a major security problem in Eurasia because two very large states had to secure their sources of fuel rapidly under conditions where the nearby sources of supply were located in high-risk areas of the Middle East and Central Eurasia. Then there is a high possibility of major state competition over energy resources. We will examine how diplomacy might forestall conflict based upon the idea that all parties to the economic livelihood of Eurasia have an interest in preserving the global economy. Here we will devote particular attention to the multi-lateral efforts to provide protection to the Indian/Pacific ocean maritime lines of supply. Other topics studied are: economic development; impact of modern petroleum technology and its environmental impact; ethnic politics; terrorism in Central Eurasia; and the new ‘Great Game’ in Central Asia.
DHP D271: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES AND EAST ASIA: 1945 TO THE PRESENT
An examination of the international relations of the United States and East Asia since the end of World War II, principally U.S. interactions with China, Japan, and Korea, and secondarily, with Vietnam and Southeast Asia. Focus on fundamental concepts and realities of international politics governing interactions between the U.S. and East Asian nations, as well as the major geopolitical issues of the day. Study of the continuing patterns of interaction among the U.S. and East Asian states—the dynamics of wars, ideologies, political, economic, and cultural issues.
DHP D280: U.S.-E.U. RELATIONS IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF TRANSATLANTIC AFFAIRS
The course will explore the origins of transatlantic cooperation and the creation of common European economic and political structures, notably the European Union, and the development of transatlantic security alliances, particularly NATO. It will compare constitutional governance in the differing federal systems of the US and the EU, explore centrifugal forces like Brexit that are testing the sustainability of the EU, and examine the populist and nationalist political movements and neo-authoritarian tendencies that are challenging liberal democracy on both sides of the Atlantic. Areas of economic cooperation and tension will be studied, including the financial crisis, international trade and regulatory affairs, and the failed negotiation of a transatlantic trade and investment partnership. The course will also take up cooperative and conflicting policies of transatlantic partners in addressing security problems of terrorism, failed states, refugees and human rights catastrophes. Finally, it will examine the relationship of Russia, Turkey and countries to the east with evolving transatlantic security, economic and political structures. This course is required for all MATA students.
DHP D283M: U.S.–EUROPEAN RELATIONS SINCE THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL
The seminar examines U.S.-European relations since a peaceful revolution brought down the Berlin Wall in November 1989. The seminar looks at various common challenges in the period thereafter and how they were dealt with, both from the U.S. and the European perspective: the unification of Germany, Bosnia and Kosovo, the enlargement of NATO, NATO/Russia, 9/11 and the threat of violent extremism, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran and nuclear non- proliferation and disarmament, among others. The emphasis is on practical skills rather than theory. Students will practice to write short memos for political leaders and to give very short oral presentations. One-half credit.
DHP H200: THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES TO 1917
The history of American foreign relations from the Revolution to the First World War. The transformation of the former colony into a “world power,” noting the internal dynamics of this remarkable development, as well as its external causes. The evolution of major U.S. foreign policies—non-entanglement, the Monroe Doctrine, the Open Door, and Dollar Diplomacy—and the relationships of these policies to westward expansion, post-Civil War reconstruction, and industrialization and urbanization. The national debate following the Spanish-American War over “imperialism.” The leadership of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson and their contrasting ideas of American power, interest, and purpose. Not offered AY 2017-2018
DHP H201: THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1917
The history of U.S. foreign relations from the First World War to the present day. Woodrow Wilson and the Versailles Treaty. American responses to the Bolshevik Revolution, European fascism, and Japanese imperialism. The presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Neutrality Laws, and U.S. involvement in the Second World War and major wartime conferences. The postwar “revolution” in American foreign policy—the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and NATO. The conduct of the Cold War and the management of crises in the Caribbean and other regions. The Vietnam conflict, Nixon-Kissinger “Detente,” the Carter Doctrine, the Gulf War and “New World Order,” 9/11 and the Global War on Terror, the Arab Spring, worldwide financial instability, and the question of America’s future global engagement. Not offered AY 2017-2018
DHP H202: MARITIME HISTORY AND GLOBALIZATION
A study of world history over the past 500 years from a salt-water perspective. The course will examine the ocean as avenue, arena, source, and cultural metaphor, analyzing major themes such as the impact of changing technologies and modes of warfare, evolving patterns of trade, and differing cultural perceptions. The format will be lecture, with some discussion. Not offered AY 2016-2017.
DHP H204: CLASSICS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Most graduate courses in international relations focus on “cutting edge” research. Without a working knowledge of Thucydides, Kant, or Schelling, citizens and policymakers are unable to place new theoretical propositions into a historical context. This course surveys the history of international relations theory through a close reading of 10-15 classic works in the field. Among the questions that will be addressed: how far has IR theory developed since Thucydides? How closely do theories of international relations mirror the era in which they were written? In what ways are these widely cited works simplified or misstated in the current era?
DHP H205: THE HISTORIAN’S ART AND CURRENT AFFAIRS
Through case studies, this course aims to give students the historical powers they need as they go out into the world: empathy, detachment, and relentless skepticism. The course examines the origins of World War I and the analogies the war provoked and provokes, as well as the two paradigms that come up when debating whether or not to go to war: the trouble that flowed from appeasing Nazi Germany and Japan in the run up to World War II, and the disastrous Sicilian expedition embarked on by ancient Athens. The tension between these paradigms is explored through studies of war in Korea, Vietnam, and Iraq. The course will also examine how different readings of history can lead to dramatically different policies; the U.S., Russia, and China tell Cold War history differently and those differences do much to explain their different worldviews. Armed with knowledge of the many endings of the Cold War, the course will also compare the revolutions in Europe in 1989, Ukraine’s Orange Revolution, and the Arab Spring.
DHP H252: RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY FROM PETER THE GREAT TO PUTIN
This course will examine major trends in Russian diplomacy and power projection. It begins by looking at Russian history, including the foreign policy of key tsars such as Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, and Alexander. Then the course turns to the 20th century, including the diplomacy of the early Soviet state, Stalin and World War II, the rise and fall of the Cold War, and post-Soviet Russia.
DHP H261: WAR AND SOCIETY IN THE MIDDLE EAST IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
A century ago, World War I and its settlement shaped the modern Middle East. The end of the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of successor states in search of internal ideology and regional influence have characterized the region today. This course addresses the broader topic of struggle and survival during cataclysmic events, such as a world war, with reference to the history of the student’s region of interest. It is a research–based class in which students will learn how to better research conflict and how to develop an approach to the study of conflict given the many perspectives of those affected by it. The course will also discuss the ways in which conflict can transform a region. This course is cross-listed with the School of Arts and Sciences - Department of History.
DHP H270: THE UNITED STATES AND NORTHEAST ASIA
An examination of the American experience in China, Japan, and Korea, from the centuries of sporadic encounter between the two distinctly disparate and seemingly antithetical worlds of Euro-America and Northeast Asia to the aftermath of the end of the Pacific War. Focus on the late nineteenth century, when mutual images begin to take form and the evolving pattern of the unequal relationship during the first half of the twentieth century. Topics include East Asian cultural traditions, Christianity, imperialism, wars, and modernization. Emphasis on ideas, national mythologies, and images. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP H271: FOREIGN RELATIONS OF MODERN CHINA, 1644 TO THE PRESENT
This course is a survey of China’s foreign relations from the Qing dynasty to the present. Topics include geography, warfare, diplomacy, trade, cultural exchange, and the connections between past and present. Lectures followed by discussion.
DHP P200: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THEORY AND PRACTICE
Traditional, behavioral, and post behavioral theories of international relations, and the nature of theory in international relations; the role of normative theory; levels of analysis, structure-agent relationships, and concepts of foreign policy behavior and decision making; utopian/neo-liberal and realist/neo-realist theory, and democratic peace theory; theories of power and its management; theories of integration, cooperation, conflict, war, and geopolitical and ecological/environmental relationships; constructivism; systems theory; regime analysis; the relationship between theory and the international system in the early 21st century; traditional and contemporary paradigms of the international system.
DHP P201: COMPARATIVE POLITICS
This course is designed to introduce students to the study of comparative politics. The first two weeks of the course will familiarize students with the type of questions that comparative political scientists tackle and the methodological tools that they employ. This week will also concentrate on issues such as concept formation and theory development. The rest of the course will be structured around key research areas in the field of comparative politics such as state formation, nationalism, constitutional structure of states, origins and persistence of political regimes, emergence of political parties and voting, religion and politics, political culture, and political violence.
DHP P203: ANALYTIC FRAMEWORKS FOR INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC POLICY DECISIONS
Introduction to the basic tools of policy analysis and decision-making, providing students with analytic skills to make policy decisions in many types of organizations. The course includes an introduction to public policy objectives, decision-making, and the role of analysis. Students then learn powerful analytic decision-making techniques, including decision trees, Bayes theorem, utility theory, prospect theory, game theory, benefit-cost analysis, and tipping models. Case studies are used to learn the policy analysis tools while applying them to real world policy problems. Cases come from developed and developing countries, and cover many different policy fields. No background in economics or statistics is required.
DHP P204: WOMEN IN NATIONAL SECURITY
This seminar examines key issues in national security and global affairs through the lens of gender, placing a specific emphasis on the role of women in peace, war, intelligence, and governance. After grounding gender analysis in international relations theory, the seminar proceeds with three sections. The first section focuses on women in governance. In this section, we focus on women leaders, including those who have served as heads of state (including during times of war), as well as in parliaments around the world. What are some of the stereotypes of women leaders and the challenges they confront in rising to the top? Do women differ from men in such leadership positions? Would state interactions be more peaceful and our lives more secure if women ran the world? The seminar then moves from women in governance to the second broad section: women in warfare. In this section, two characterizations rise to the forefront: women as victims during conflict, including from displacement, sexual violence, and the disruption of everyday life, and then women as combatants during conflict, including in the armed forces, resistance movements, and terrorist organizations. The final section of the seminar examines a range of select topics related to Women and National Security. We explore women as builders of peace through peace accords and post-conflict reconstruction; the experiences of women serving in the Intelligence Services; the day-to-day practical realities confronting women with careers in global affairs; and how men can serve as agents of change for equality.
DHP P205: NATIONAL SECURITY DECISION-MAKING: THEORY & PRACTICE
This course examines national security decision-making from both a theoretical perspective and from its execution in practice. The seminar focuses on how national security decisions are made rather than on the theories of international relations or the substantive content of national security policies. It is divided into three sections. The first part of the seminar—drawn, in part, from the instructor’s nearly six years on the National Security Council (NSC) staff—introduces the student to the current structures, processes, and primary actors involved in national security decisions. The second section then delves into analytic and theoretical models of decision-making, cognitive biases, and how decision-makers use intelligence and lessons from history in their decisions. Finally, the seminar concludes with discussions on practical application and execution, has students participate in a crisis simulation, and explores possible reforms. Emphasis throughout the seminar is placed on the national security decision-making system of the United States (and particularly on the Executive Branch), but seminar participants also are encouraged to examine and discuss the systems and actors of other states as well.
DHP P206M: MARITIME SECURITY
Maritime security is a constant fixture in security headlines. Ranging from territorial disputes in the South China Sea to piracy near strategic chokepoints, maritime security challenges are varied and complex. This course seeks to unravel these challenges by examining the basic foundations of maritime security. These include the key technologies and technological trends which affect maritime security, the role of Great Powers, the importance of chokepoints, and future of non-state actors. Students taking this course will emerge with a nuanced understanding of security challenges in the maritime domain and knowledge of maritime terminology used by practitioners in the field.
DHP P207: GIS FOR INTERNATIONAL APPLICATIONS
This course introduces students to the use of geospatial technologies, data, and analysis focusing on applications in the international context. The course gives primary emphasis to the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for data creation, mapping, and analysis. It will also cover the use of global positioning systems (GPS) for field data collection and mapping; cartography for high quality visualization; and the use of map mash-ups and crowd sourcing in the international arena. Final projects are large-format poster info-graphics. More detailed course information is available at:https://wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/display/GISINT/Home. Enrollment limited to 26 student
DHP P210: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This course covers the basics of research design and methods in political science. The first part of the course is devoted to developing a research question, constructing testable theories, understanding the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods, and concept formation. The second part of the course focuses on specific research methods (historical analysis, statistical methods, field research, archival research, and experiments) and their relative strengths and weaknesses. The final section of the course addresses the ways in which scholars combine different methods to study political phenomena. Open to PhD students only or with permission of instructor.
DHP P213: RELIGION AND POLITICS
This course is designed to introduce the students to the study of the relationship between religion and politics. The course will be structured around key research areas in the field such as the conditions under which societies or the institutions that govern them become secularized, the emergence and persistence of the religious-secular divide as a salient political cleavage, the relationship between regime type and religion, the potential implications of religious doctrines for public policy and economic outcomes, the causes of religious violence, as well as the historical and contemporary role of religion in the international sphere.
DHP P214: GENDER THEORY AND PRAXIS
This course provides a foundation in key theories and frameworks for understanding gender issues across disciplines. Drawing on key texts from the fields of anthropology, philosophy, post-colonial theory, women’s and gender studies, feminist theory, international relations, development economics, environmental studies and beyond, students will explore the role of gender and gender relations across the spheres of social, cultural, political, economic and religious life. The course syllabus seeks to capture the diversity of identities and viewpoints that are reflected in theoretical conversations about gender. While many of these debates are commonly discussed with reference to international studies, this course will also wade into the realm of the domestic, exploring how gender theories manifest in reproduction, labor, and peacetime relationships. Discussions will draw out intersectional themes and invite students to reflect on how to apply these theories and approaches to issues of race, social class, and other dimensions of identity and privilege.
DHP P215: NUCLEAR DOSSIERS: U.S. PRIORITIES, DILEMMAS AND CHALLENGES IN A TIME OF NUCLEAR DISORDER
The seminar offers an in-depth analysis of selected nuclear issues that today top the U.S. nuclear agenda. The course seeks to explain the genesis and the evolution of these issues and to examine and debate the appropriateness of current policies. The course offers both theoretical and policy perspectives on these issues so as to encourage students to experiment with different theoretical lenses and to familiarize themselves with the constraints and limits of policy formulation in the face of complex and pressing dilemmas.
DHP P216: RESEARCH AND WRITING IN THE GLOBAL POLITICAL ECONOMY
The goal of this seminar is to introduce students to the process of writing research papers on topics in global political economy (GPE). We will examine how domestic and international politics influence the economic relations between states, and vice versa. The course is intended to introduce students to research design and guide them in selecting a capstone research question and methodology. The course objectives are – 1) introduce seminal theoretical debates and research approaches in global political economy 2) develop skills in critical reading and writing 3) to apply the logic of the scientific method 4) to have students develop a research proposal that can ultimately be the foundation of their capstone thesis. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P217: GLOBAL POLITICAL ECONOMY: MACROECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES
What determines the direction, magnitude, governance, and fluctuation of international economic exchange? This course surveys the theories and issue areas of the global political economy, both in the current day and in the past. Different analytical models are presented to explain the variations in economic exchange over time. The issue areas that will be examined include: world trade, monetary orders, global finance, and foreign investment. Current topics that will be covered include: the effects of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, the rise of the BRIC economies, the future of the dollar, and the future of global economic governance.
DHP P218: GLOBAL POLITICAL ECONOMY: COMPARATIVE AND CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES
The goal of this course is to introduce students to the social-scientific study of global political economy (GPE). We will critically examine how domestic and international politics influence economic relations between states, and vice versa. The course is organized into three sections. The first section draws the students into the study and broader history of GPE and introduces the theoretical framework(s). The second part of the course focuses on three dominant policy domains: International Trade, Finance and Investment. The remainder of the course covers a selection of contemporary, empirical phenomena that arise as political forces intervene in economic decision-making and/or economic constraints shape political outcomes.
DHP P219: POLITICAL ECONOMY OF DEVELOPMENT
This class offers a survey of some of the key debates and issues in the political economy of development. First, we examine alternative approaches to development and how they have informed policies in developing countries since the 1950s. Second, we compare different patterns of interaction among the state, political parties, interest groups, and civil society and examine how they have affected development outcomes. Third, we address current topics such as the rise of China and India, new approaches to poverty alleviation, and the impact of global financial crises on developing countries.
DHP P220: UNDERSTANDING MASS ATROCITIES
The study and development of policy related to “genocide” and mass atrocities are highly contested in terms of the universe of cases, key definitions, and thresholds of violence that should trigger action. This course provides an overview of the debates by introducing the key concepts, contexts and policies related to mass atrocities. Beginning with the introduction of the term “genocide,” we will explore a range of terminologies and frameworks for defining and explaining mass violence against civilians.
DHP P221: MEMORY POLITICS: TRUTH, JUSTICE, AND REDRESS
In this course we analyze the relationship between memory and social reconciliation, and the role that theories of truth, justice and redress play in this equation. We begin with WWII, or more precisely its aftermath and the emergence of a series of conventions and covenants establishing human rights as a set of international laws, institutions, and norms. We trace the expansion of, and challenges to, the regime of human rights and international law by focusing on case studies that allow us to analyze war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, the burgeoning field of transitional justice, and local level forms of assessing guilt and administering justice. Our case studies this year include Rwanda, South Africa, Colombia, Guatemala, and Peru.
DHP P222: DEVELOPMENT AID IN PRACTICE
This course provides an overview of the operational and professional world of development. It covers choices, key concepts, and the main tools in the practice of development. There will be a focus on management and leadership challenges that development professionals face, both from the policy and practitioner perspective. Students will not learn technical knowledge in education, health, infrastructure, etc., but they will learn about cross- cutting issues that appear in all fields of development cooperation.
DHP P223M: POLITICAL VIOLENCE
This course provides a theoretical and empirical overview of different types of political violence including interstate wars, civil wars, violence within wars and occupations, mass violence targeting groups (such as genocide and ethnic cleansing), and riots. One-half credit. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P224: CULTURAL CAPITAL AND DEVELOPMENT
The influence of cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes on the evolution of societies has been shunned by scholars, politicians, and development experts. It is much more common for the experts to cite geographic constraints, insufficient resources, bad policies, or weak institutions. But by avoiding values and culture, they ignore an important part of the explanation why some societies or ethno-religious groups do better than others with respect to democratic governance, social justice, and prosperity. They also ignore the possibility that progress can be accelerated by (1) analyzing cultural strengths and weaknesses, and (2) addressing cultural change as a purposive policy to apply through families, schools, churches, media, leadership, and/or the law.
DHP P225M: DESIGN AND MONITORING OF PEACEBUILDING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMING
The course explores core components of the program cycle, beginning with peacebuilding theories that underpin program design and ending with the development of high-quality indicators for monitoring. The core concepts of design and monitoring will be applied primarily to international development and peacebuilding programming. This practical course is intended for students who wish to obtain a strong skill set in Design, Monitoring, and Evaluation (DME) and work in peacebuilding or international development. One-half credit.
DHP P226M: EVALUATION OF PEACEBUILDING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR PRACTITIONERS AND DONORS
The course provides an in-depth, practical preparation for those seeking to be practitioners or donors in the final stage of the program cycle; evaluation. The core concepts will be applied primarily to international development and peacebuilding programming. This practical course should be taken by any student wishing to work in the development or peacebuilding field. Open to students who have completed P225m. Note: P226m is a prerequisite for P228m. One-half credit.
DHP P227M: ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION
This seminar is an in-depth and cutting-edge discussion of what development and conflict resolution practitioners currently do together on the ground in conflict situations on all continents. It deals with methodologies (conflict analysis, program development, etc.), issue areas (reconciliation, security sector reform, demobilization, disarmament, and reintegration), and context (political economy of peacebuilding, relations with the military). Open to students who have completed D223, P222 or with permission of the instructor. One-half credit. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P228M: ADVANCED EVALUATION AND LEARNING IN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
This advanced module is key for students who wish to develop the full-package of skills and concepts expected of professionals working in development and peacebuilding. At the end of this class, students will have a working knowledge of the key evaluation designs, approaches and tools; the ability to evaluate existing evaluations for adequacy of the design and quality; a clear picture of the link between evaluation and learning; and an overview of the latest strategies and challenges in creating learning organizations. One-half credit.
DHP P229: GOVERNANCE AND INTEREST GROUPS: COMPARATIVE AND INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES
The course focuses on the crucial interface of governance and interests, aiming to explore the role of interest groups in today’s political systems. The course tackles the role of interests in governance in everyday, routine politics, as well as in cases of dramatic political change and upheaval. Interest groups are a major channel through which citizens express their views to decision-makers and impact policy. At the same time, interest groups may often help shape and direct the interest they are supposed to represent. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P231: INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION
The course covers international communication from three perspectives: its governance, its many- dimensional relationship with governments, and policy issues. Students explore different theories and examples of how different types of communication content and technology interact with sovereignty, politics, security, international relations, culture, and development. The course provides the foundations of this field with a structural approach. Topics covered include freedom of speech, global media and international journalism, public diplomacy, propaganda, media in democracies and totalitarian states, media influence on foreign policy, digital divide, intellectual property, privacy, convergence, security, media and political conflict and economic development.
DHP P232: COMMUNICATIONS POLICY ANALYSIS AND MODELING
Students will learn the important political and economic characteristics of communication policy and markets, and will practice using basic analytic tools through case studies and examples from different countries to enhance their understanding of communication policy issues. Students will study the general background and trends in communication policy in different parts of the world. This is followed by in-depth exploration of several issues of telecommunications policy, media policy, and policy issues of the Internet and newer technologies. Open to students who have completed either E201 or E211 or the equivalent. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P233: ICT4D - DIGITAL APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT
This course focuses on the impact of the contemporary information and communications technologies (ICT) on the interaction between individuals, public authorities, businesses and the non-profit sector. How is technology affecting political, social, and economic relationships? How is it affecting development activities such as agriculture, financial services, education, health services, the security of citizens and their ability to participate in democratic institutions? How can the transformative power of technology be maximized to contribute effectively to inclusive socio-economic growth and equality? The course will build on academic literature, technical papers, blogs, and the expertise of policymakers, intellectuals, and practitioners from both hemispheres to discuss the meaning of doing business, doing good, and being citizens in the digital world, as well as issues related to the governance of the digital society. It will further expand students’ understanding of the transformative power of technology, the dynamic interactions between the parties mentioned above, the rights, obligation, expectations of each, and will equip them to assess challenges and opportunities to use technology to foster social and economic development.
DHP P234: THE ARTS OF COMMUNICATION
Today’s leaders must have the ability not only to analyze thoughtfully but also to communicate clearly and persuasively. This full semester course is intended to turn you into a significantly more persuasive and effective public speaker—someone who speaks with the ease, confidence, clarity, and modes of persuasion that are critical in today’s corporate, nonprofit, policy, and diplomacy worlds. We will cover a range of speaking scenarios, from podium speeches on values to simulations of a press conference or media interview on camera. The course is intended to help you develop your own personal style by deepening your understanding of the persuasive tools, recommendations, refutations, modes of analysis, and variations in audiences that motivate listeners to turn business, policy and diplomacy ideas into action. The full semester course will take a deeper and wider dive into the world of public speaking relative to the module course, and include sessions on debating, ceremonial speeches, as well as more detailed sessions on facing the camera and press, impromptu speaking, and elevator pitching. Approximately one-half of the course will be devoted to classes that introduce students to strategies of spoken communication and to models of public presentation. The other half will consist of speech delivery sessions in which students will hone their skills in public speaking. Enrollment limited to 30 students.
DHP P234M: THE ARTS OF COMMUNICATION
Today’s leaders must have the ability not only to analyze thoughtfully but also to communicate clearly and persuasively. This course is intended to turn you into a more persuasive and effective public speaker— someone who speaks with the ease, confidence, clarity, and modes of persuasion that are critical in today’s corporate, nonprofit, policy, and diplomacy worlds. We will cover a range of speaking scenarios, from podium speeches on values to simulations of a press conference or media interview on camera. The course is intended to help you develop your own personal style by deepening your understanding of the persuasive tools, recommendations, refutations, modes of analysis, and variations in audiences that motivate listeners to turn business, policy and diplomacy ideas into action. Approximately one-half of the course will be devoted to classes that introduce students to strategies of spoken communication and to models of public presentation, including utilizing new media. The other half will consist of speech delivery sessions in which students will hone their skills in public speaking. Enrollment limited to 30 students. One-half credit.
DHP P240: THE ROLE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS
This core International Security Studies course presents an examination of the role of force as an instrument of statecraft. Topics covered include: 1) military power and the role of force in contemporary world politics; 2) the causes of war and the moral/ethical constraints on armed violence; 3) instruments and purposes of coercion force: military power and strategic non-violent action; 4) national security policy formation and process; 5) the modes and strategies of military power (nuclear, conventional, internal conflict); 6) the structure of the post-Cold War and post-9/11 international security environment.
DHP P241: POLICY AND STRATEGY IN THE ORIGINS, CONDUCT, AND TERMINATION OF WAR
This course employs case studies to assess enduring principles of war and their role in defending a nation’s interests and objectives. The works of three military strategists and four political theorists are examined to develop an analytical framework for assessing the origins, conduct, and termination of war. This framework is employed to analyze six major historical conflicts: the Peloponnesian War; the Wars of Revolutionary and Napoleonic France; the American Civil War; World War I; World War II; the French-Indo- China War/U.S. war in Vietnam. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P242: PROLIFERATION- COUNTERPROLIFERATION AND HOMELAND SECURITY ISSUES
The 21st-century proliferation setting; alternative approaches to threat reduction; international negotiations and agreements including the Non- Proliferation Treaty; the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Missile Technology Control Regime, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Open Skies Treaty, the Biological Weapons Convention, and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; approaches to nonproliferation and counterproliferation; issues of homeland security; coping with the effects of weapons of mass destruction; cyber war; technology transfer; the nuclear fuel cycle; the fissile material problem; cooperative security; compliance, verification, and on- site inspection; missile defense; negotiating strategies, styles, objectives, asymmetries, and techniques. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P243: INTERNAL CONFLICTS AND WAR
Instability, conflict, and irregular warfare within states due to burgeoning challenges posed by armed groups have proliferated in number and importance since the Cold War ended. With the spread of globalization, the technological shrinking of the world and interdependence of states and regions, these internal/transnational conflicts have taken new dimensions with far-reaching consequences. This seminar examines their patterns and evolution. Topics include examination of: the global strategic environment which armed groups exploit; the causes of internal/transnational conflict; types of armed groups, their operational patterns and strategies; and six case studies. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P244: MODERN TERRORISM AND COUNTERTERRORISM
This course examines the nature of terrorism; the spectrum of terrorist motivations, strategies, and operations; the socio-political, economic and other factors that can enable terrorist group activities; the unique threat of WMD terrorism; and the internal vulnerabilities of terrorist organizations. Students will examine current and classic research on terrorism, and explore many of the puzzles that remain unanswered. Finally, the course will analyze these critical issues within the context of policies and strategies for responding to the threat of terrorism with increasing sophistication and success.
DHP P245: CRISIS MANAGEMENT AND COMPLEX EMERGENCIES
Consideration of crisis management in theory and practice, drawing from recent and earlier crises; theories of crisis prevention, deterrence; escalation, de-escalation, termination, and post crisis management; decision making; bargaining and negotiation; the role of third-parties; the National Security Act of 1947 and decisional approaches in successive U.S. administrations. Emphasis on theoretical literature, as well as the perspective of actual participants in recent crises and utilization of case studies, including cyber crises. The seminar also includes a major weekend crisis simulation exercise, SIMULEX, with outside participants from the official policy community.
DHP P246: CIVIL RESISTANCE: GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS OF NONVIOLENT STRUGGLES FOR RIGHTS AND ACCOUNTABILITY
This course is an in-depth conversation about (i) civil resistance – understood as a nonviolent struggle that is planned and waged by ordinary people – and (ii) the power of civil resistance to bring about major political, economic, or social change. This course will address how and why civil resistance movements work, their historical record and outcomes, and the strategy and dynamics of asymmetric conflicts waged by civil resistance movements. Drawing from this basis of understanding, we will look at how knowledge of civil resistance can better inform foreign policy formulations, including external assistance to civil resistance movements.
DHP P247: CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS
Although recent conflict environments entered a grey area that is neither war nor peace, the complexity of civil-military relations is not new. In the last two decades, kinetic activity, wider peacekeeping, peace building and state building have been pursued simultaneously. Cyber attacks and targeted killing outside war zones add to the “grey area.” This seminar will analyze how international interveners, both civil and military, deal with such complex environments. Approaches will include themes, such as lack of coordination and planning; negotiation at HQ and in the field among civilian agencies, NGOs, and the military. We will examine cases and themes, as well as theory. Prior to taking this course, students should have taken a course in security studies, negotiation, or international law.
DHP P248M: VARIETIES OF CORRUPTION
The goal of this course is to introduce students to the study of corruption in the global political economy. Corruption is a political phenomenon that affects both the quality of governing institutions and the functioning of economic markets. For this reason, scholars and policy practitioners place considerable attention on, first, conceptualizing and identifying the phenomenon and, then, explaining its causes and consequences. Ultimately this research is aimed at formulating practical methods for reducing corruption’s prevalence and harm. The course is organized into three main sections. The first part of the course introduces the topic of corruption and its relevance to international affairs, economic development and comparative politics. The second part of the course explores corruption through the lenses of four distinct theoretical frameworks: economic, rational-legal, institutional and cultural. Here students will be introduced briefly to the methodological toolkits of these varying approaches and critically assess their relative merits. The final component of the course consists of special issue areas in corruption.
DHP P249: INTERNATIONAL CYBER CONFLICT
One of the most consequential national security and economic challenges confronting policymakers today is cyber space and the threats that emanate from it. As a domain and instrument of competition and conflict, cyber space enables a range of global actors—including dissidents, terrorist organizations, and states with varying levels of offensive and defensive cyber capabilities—to assert influence, project power, and conduct activities in the increasingly ambiguous gray areas between war and peace. Designed as an introductory course for the national security generalist, this seminar will explore the role of power and conflict in cyber space; examine the various activities that occur in cyber space, including espionage, subversion, sabotage, and the potential for cyber warfare; explore the vulnerability of critical infrastructure and the role of the private sector; and discuss the policies, strategies, and governance structures of key actors that operate within the cyber domain. Underscoring topics throughout the course will be discussions on the role of risk and how policymakers assess threats and adapt to risk in the cyber domain. Prerequisite: Students are required to have completed P240.
DHP P250: ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING
The foundation of this course is exposure to a portfolio of (primarily) quantitative analytical techniques for assessing environmental dimensions of economic activities, policies, and technologies. The goal is for students to become informed, capable environmental analysts and discerning consumers of environmental research and analysis. The course focuses on four applied environmental problems. Each case introduces an analytic skill and situates it in its political, regulatory and/or economic context. P250 requires completion or co-enrollment in either B205: Data Analysis and Statistical Methods or E213: Econometrics.
DHP P251: ENERGY, ENTREPRENEURSHIP & FINANCE
Driven by environmental factors, technology and market conditions, opportunities abound in areas related to conventional and new energy, which is represented by renewables and new technologies. This course examines the role that entrepreneurship, policy and financing taken together play in driving change that impacts traditional energy sources and results new energy opportunities. Energy entrepreneurship and financing together will support and create new infrastructure and require new energy paradigms on both the supply and demand side. The class will meld policy, strategy, finance and entrepreneurship in order to build a coherent framework for integrating conventional and new energy with a focus on both business and the environment. DHP P254 is recommended but not required.
DHP P252M: HEALTH, HUMAN SECURITY AND EMERGING PATHOGENS
With increasing globalization of trade, travel and terrorism, public and individual human health have become topics of global concern, involving sovereign nations, international organizations and the scientific community. Threats from emerging infectious diseases outbreaks exemplify this trend. In contrast to the traditional idea of national security, the field of human security focuses on the individual, rather than state, as the nexus of analysis and takes a multidisciplinary approach through which to analyze the challenges related to community, national and global response to emerging infectious diseases epidemics. This course will start by examining human security literature and practice as it applies to infectious diseases threats. It will examine factors leading to increasing frequency of outbreaks due to novel pathogens, such as climate change and environmental degradation, and the concept of One Health. It will then look at the intersection between scientific research and related ethical issues, disease surveillance and global biosecurity issues. Further, the course will examine the historical basis for International Health Regulations and other frameworks for modern global health governance as they apply to outbreaks. Lastly, the class will utilize case studies to examine how outbreak preparedness and response have been managed during recent epidemics such as SARS, H1N1, MERS, Ebola and Zika. This course is meant to foster interdisciplinary perspectives by bringing together practitioners from international law, human development, public health and clinical care.
DHP P253: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DIPLOMACY
Sustainable development diplomacy course examines how to integrate economic, environmental and social equity goals in foreign policy-making. It discusses the emergence of sustainable development as a concept and international institutions and negotiation processes that facilitate its implementation. Focusing on climate, water and forest diplomacy, we address a range of themes including UN climate negotiations, climate finance, environmental refugees, public-private cooperation, and water governance. The course also analyzes China and BRICS-led approaches to sustainable development and their new banks. It offers insights from practice, trainings in mutual gains negotiations and complex UN multiparty negotiations. Students develop expertise in policy analysis and planning, strategic thinking and feedback management.
DHP P254: CLIMATE CHANGE AND CLEAN ENERGY POLICY
This course examines how governments respond to the challenges posed by the complex problem of global climate change and how clean energy policies can help countries achieve multiple goals. The latest science, technological developments, economic assessments of costs and opportunities, the role of the media, domestic and international politics, and innovation are all discussed. Policy instruments for climate mitigation, adaptation, and a clean energy economy are introduced and thoroughly analyzed in a comparative way across most of the major-energy consuming countries. In-class exercises including an international negotiation simulation illuminate course themes. The course introduces and strengthens multidisciplinary policy analysis skills.
DHP P255: INTERNATIONAL ENERGY POLICY
Energy affects every dimension of human society and it is crucial for economic prosperity. Energy is at the heart of economic development strategies, national security challenges, and intractable environmental problems. This review course maps how challenges and opportunities differ among countries, exploring basic differences between industrialized and developing countries. The policies of major energy producers and consumers are compared. The focus is on oil and gas, but renewable energy sources are also considered. Topics include: energy and the world economy, the geopolitics of oil and gas, energy markets, energy policy and economic development, climate change, technological change and the future of energy. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P256: INNOVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE PROSPERITY
Innovation is the main source of economic growth and improvements in productivity, is a key lever for catalyzing development, reducing environmental harm, improving human health and well-being, and enhances national security. This seminar explores the nature of technology, theories and “stylized facts” about innovation processes, and how to think about innovation systems. A major focus is policy for innovation. Topics include national innovation systems, management of risks, global change, actors and institutions, social innovation, private vs. public, education, cross-country comparisons, competitiveness, technology transfer and diffusion, learning and “catch-up”, IPR’s, and leapfrogging. Case studies are used to understand each topic.
DHP P257: CORPORATE MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Explores companies’ responses to pressure from stockholders, regulatory agencies, community and non-governmental organizations to exercise greater responsibility toward the environment and an increasing spectrum of social issues. Topics included strategy, staffing and organization, decision making, codes of conduct, resources, program development, product responsibility, corporate environmental policies, pollution prevention, trade associations, accident response, response to laws and regulations, corporate social responsibility, international issues, and foreign operations. Note: This course is cross- listed (UEP 265) with the School of Arts and Sciences - Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning.
DHP P258: APPLIED RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
This course primarily consists of experiential learning through applied group research projects for clients. Students will spend the bulk of the semester conducting two projects for leading development organizations in teams of two to five. In 2015, the clients were the Overseas Development Institute, the World Bank, and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. At the beginning of the term, lectures will be conducted on the process conducting rigorous-yet applied research. We will discuss the development of testable hypotheses, the acquisition of appropriate data for hypothesis testing, the art of policy analysis, techniques for effective team research, and writing policy memos that are both technically sound and persuasive. Open to students who have completed at least one of the following courses: DHP P250; EIB B284; DHP P257; DHP P254 ; DHP P255; EIB E243; EIB E247; EIB E213 and/or EIB E246. Students interested in taking this course but who have not taken one of the pre-requisite courses MUST seek permission of the instructor.
DHP P259: SCIENCE DIPLOMACY: ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN
This course will address “science diplomacy” as an emerging interdisciplinary field with global relevance to promote cooperation and prevent conflict among nations. The first formal dialogue between NATO and Russia about security issues in the Arctic Ocean will be used as a case study, team-taught by the two co-directors of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean at the University of Cambridge in 2010. The resulting book, which has over 40,000 downloads, will serve as the key text to address the elements of science diplomacy that apply across our civilization: (1) understanding of changes over time and space; (2) instruments for Earth system monitoring and assessment; (3) early warning systems; (4) catalysts of public-policy agendas; (5) features of international legal institutions; (6) sources of invention and commercial enterprise; (7) continuity across generations; (8) and global tool of diplomacy. Overall objective of this course is to consider the contributions of science diplomacy for building common interests among nations so that we can balance economic prosperity, environmental protection and societal well-being – in view of today’s urgencies and the needs of future generations – across our world.This course is designed as a seminar for two hours on Thursday mornings and will be co-taught via videoconference by Professor Paul Berkman at The Fletcher School in Boston and by Professor Alexander Vylegzhanin at MGIMO University in Moscow, involving fifteen students on each side. United States and Russian students will learn together in the shared classroom environment and collaborate on projects throughout the semester, leading to a Mock Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting and shared production of a mock ministerial declaration. This course necessitates early enrollment so that Fletcher and MGIMO students may be integrated into the necessary course systems at both institutions prior to the start of the spring semester.
DHP P260: ISLAM AND THE WEST
Going beyond the simplistic notion of a great civilization divide, this course puts the categories ‘Islam’ and ‘the West’ under the spotlight of historical and comparative analysis. After providing some essential background, the course concentrates on the colonial and postcolonial encounter between Muslim and Western societies and polities with special, but not exclusive reference to the South Asian subcontinent. Organized along historical and thematic lines, the course focuses on the overlapping domains of culture and politics, thought and practice, to elucidate aspects of dialogue, tension, and confrontation between the worlds of Islam and the West.
DHP P261: DEMOCRATIZATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST: THEORY AND PRACTICE
This course explores foundational theoretical, methodological, and operational questions relevant to understanding democratization in the Middle East. How do we specify regime types; how do we explain the pervasiveness of authoritarian resilience and hybrid regimes, versus democratic, regimes, in the region? How do historical conditions of state-formation and patterns of secular and religious nation-building shape democratization trajectories in the region? How does geopolitics affect democratization in the Middle East? Using comparative cases of Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Syria, and Turkey, and combining seminar-style presentations with visits by democratization policymakers from inside/outside the region, the course gives students a robust introduction to scholar-practitioner issues at the cutting edge of democratization in the Middle East.
DHP P262: CONTEMPORARY SOUTH ASIA
Organized along both historical and thematic lines, the course surveys politics, economy, and society in late colonial India and offers a comparative historical analysis of state structures and political processes in post-colonial South Asia, particularly India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Among the themes considered are the reasons for the partition of 1947, the nature of the colonial legacy, the origins of democracy and military authoritarianism, history of development, the shifting balance between central and regional power, the ongoing clash between so-called secular and religiously informed ideologies, and the impact on interstate relations in the subcontinent. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P263: CIVIL WARS: THEORY AND POLICY
This course introduces students to the analytical and comparative study of large-scale, organized violence within states. Historical and contemporary civil wars will be analyzed from a variety of perspectives, and prominent cases such as former Yugoslavia and contemporary Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Sudan and Syria will be discussed. The course will address the role of resources, grievances, religion, nationalism, interstate dimensions (including refugee flows and repatriation), external intervention, and conflict resolution. The course aims to provide students with solid theoretical and historical foundations, and to highlight the difficult policy dilemmas associated with civil wars. By the end of the course, students will be well prepared to think through policy options in the prevention and resolution of civil wars. Enrollment is open, and there are no prerequisites.
DHP P266M: THE ISLAMIC WORLD: POLITICAL ECONOMY AND BUSINESS CONTEXT
This course aims to explain those aspects of the Islamic world—history, politics, economics, society, legal systems, business practices—that are necessary to conduct business or political negotiations in a number of countries. The course will discuss issues of political economy and business of the Islamic world, with a special focus on Islamic networks, business culture, oil, and issues of globalization and governance. Case studies will focus on specific companies and institutions. From a geographic standpoint, the course will focus primarily on Middle Eastern and Persian Gulf countries, although it will also include countries such as Malaysia and Pakistan. For MIB students, this course is one of the regional course options. One- half credit.
DHP P268: ISLAM AND POLITICS: RELIGION AND POWER IN WORLD AFFAIRS
Islamic ideas and actors play an important part in global politics today. Their impact on political change, international security, and economic and social trends has shaped international relations in recent years. This course will trace the historical evolution of political Islam from both an international relations and a comparative politics perspective. A particular focus will be on the diversity of political Islam and on the religious factor in the “Arab Spring.” The course will also look at the role of other religions in contemporary politics.
DHP P272: CHINA'S FRONTIERS
This seminar examines the significance of China’s frontiers for Chinese foreign policy, Asian security, and international relations. The course will move geographically, taking students from Vietnam to the South China Sea, by way of the Tibetan plateau, Central Asia, the Mongolian steppe, and the Diaoyu (or Senkaku) islands, to name a few. Students will consider the different forces that come into play in a frontier region, such as ethnicity, trade, boundary disputes, and geography. The course is multidisciplinary: students are encouraged to take advantage of perspectives from history, anthropology, political science, economics, and journalism. Students are expected to produce a 15-30 page research paper. The assignments of an annotated bibliography, a précis, and a rough draft are meant to facilitate the writing process. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P273: THE STRATEGIC DIMENSIONS OF CHINA’S RISE
This course is built around two key questions surrounding China’s rise: How will China rise? Where will this rise take China? To address these two deceptively simple questions, this course relies on the concept of strategy. In the broadest sense, strategy is the relationship between ends and means. For the purposes of this course, strategy is understood as the nexus between a nation’s long-term goals and the various implements of national power—diplomatic, economic, military, and cultural tools—to achieve those objectives. To sharpen the analytical focus, this course focuses primarily on the “hard” dimensions of China’s national power, which encompasses such material factors as geography, resources, economic size, and military power.
DHP P274: THE POLITICS OF THE KOREAN PENINSULA: FOREIGN AND INTER-KOREAN RELATIONS
An examination of Korea’s modern “evolution” as a state and society. Emphasis on Korea’s modern political history, from the origins and theory of statecraft in traditional Korea to the major geopolitical issues of the present day. Topics include Korea’s relations with the great powers of the North Pacific and the primacy of international relations in the Korean world: from imperialism and Japanese colonialism, partition of the Korean peninsula and the establishment of two separate Koreas, Cold War politics and the Korean War, economic development and political freedom, to inter-Korean relations.
DHP P275: NORTH KOREAN STATE AND SOCIETY
North Korea is the world world’s last major hermit society. Since the division of the Korean peninsula in 1945, South Korea has developed into one of the largest trading nations in the world with a vibrant democratic polity, while North Korea has descended into a perpetually aid-dependent state that maintains domestic control through the deification of the ruling family and operation of extensive political prisoner concentration camps. What does the future hold for North Korea? Emphasis on the Kim family continuum, strategy of brinkmanship, human rights, nuclear politics, and the implications of regime preservation or collapse.
DHP P280: EURASIA: GEOPOLITICS, RELIGION, AND SECURITY
This course explores the intersection of geography, religion, and security in the trans-regional, trans-continental space of Eurasia. The course focuses primarily on the relationship between the United States and Russia, and questions whether the US and Russia are engaged in a zero-sum competition in Eurasia. The course has three parts: an introduction to theories of classical and critical geopolitics; an introduction to the origins of Eurasia as a geographic and cultural space, where religion figures prominently in competing geographies of power and identity; and, a review of key cases that give comparative purchased into the religion-security nexus in Eurasia.
DHP P283: EUROPEANIZATION AND THE DOMESTIC IMPACT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION
Addressing the EU’s strengths, as well as its weaknesses and limitations, this course focuses on the domestic impact of EU membership on selected EU member states. The effect of the EU on domestic institutions, processes, political culture, and policies, is examined first at a conceptual level and then through case studies of member states. The dramatic crisis of the Eurozone after 2008 provides a critical case study of the limits of Europeanization. It also encourages us to consider possible scenarios for the future. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P284: THE EU AS AN INTERNATIONAL ACTOR
The EU claims to possess capabilities for international engagement in a number of missions and operations: peacekeeping missions, joint disarmament operations, humanitarian and rescue tasks, military assistance, conflict prevention, peace-keeping, and post-conflict stabilization. This course provides an exploration of the EU’s capabilities, potential, and limitations as an international actor. An aim of the course is to introduce students to the factors and the conditions associated with the relatively limited role of the EU in international missions and operations and its potential as a ‘normative power. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P287M: POLITICAL ECONOMY AND BUSINESS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
Has the European Union (EU) delivered on its promise of a fully integrated economic and political union? How has Europe grown from its modest beginning with the European Coal and Steel Community established in 1951 with only six countries to the European Union, which today encompasses 27 countries? Is the Euro crisis undermining the future of the European Union or will it usher the EU in a fiscal union, which by necessity requires a closer political union? How does this multi- faceted integrative process shape the European business environment? Through class discussion and case studies managerial implications for firms operating in Europe are assessed at the provincial, national, and EU level. No prerequisite. Offered in English (01) and French (02) language sections. For MIB students, this course is one of the regional options. One-half credit.
DHP P290: MIGRATION AND TRANSNATIONALISM IN LATIN AMERICA
This seminar will examine the implications of international migration, migrant remittances, and transnationalism for development and politics in Latin America. The first section addresses alternative theories of migration and reviews global patterns of migration in both sending and receiving countries. The last two sections focus on the impact of international migration and remittances on economic development and politics in sending countries, primarily in Latin America but with some comparative data from other developing countries. Not offered AY 2016-2017
DHP P293: DEMOCRACY AND STATE REFORM IN LATIN AMERICA
This seminar examines how democratization and market reform have interacted to reshape the state and society in Latin America. The first part of the course provides an historical overview of these processes in ten Latin American countries: Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, El Salvador, Bolivia, and Ecuador. The second part of the course addresses the region’s ongoing struggles to deepen democracy in the areas of participation, citizenship, public security, accountability, decentralization, social policy, and civil rights.
DHP P294M: POLITICAL ECONOMY AND BUSINESS CONTEXT OF LATIN AMERICA
Examination of the economic and business environment of Latin America and the policies that shape it. Consists of interrelated institutional and structural topics such as financial systems, labor markets, social security regimes, inequality and poverty, foreign direct investment, regional economic integration, privatization, infrastructure, industrial policy, and fiscal federalism, with the controversial role of the state at issue throughout. Analysis often relies on notions of welfare economics, expounded concisely at the outset. Prior command of microeconomics very helpful, but not required. For MIB students, this course is one of the regional options. Complements macro-oriented E250. One-half credit.
DHP P296: DEMOCRACY AND AUTHORITARIANISM IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
Over the course of human history, most political regimes have been authoritarian. In this seminar, we will begin with the classic reading on authoritarianism (including totalitarian and military regimes) but quickly shift our focus to contemporary regimes that have been variously described as “hybrid,” “competitive authoritarian,” or “partially democratic.” Specific topics include authoritarian institutions, elections in non- democracies, political violence, and the political economy of authoritarian states. Finally, since it is impossible to study authoritarianism in isolation from the vast literature on democratization, we will also consider several prominent theories in this tradition. Prior coursework in democratization is helpful, but it is not a prerequisite for this course.
DHP P297: ENGAGING HUMAN SECURITY
This course enables students to develop a nuanced understanding of the central issues and debates in human security, and also develop a deeper understanding of various aspects of the predicament facing the people of a crisis-affected, conflict or post-conflict country, and international organizations mandated to help address their problems. Human security privileges the security and well being of humans rather than the state. A field of study in international affairs and international relations, human security focuses on issues at the heart of human rights, humanitarian affairs, conflict studies and mediation, economic development, health and wellbeing. Human security approaches are inter-disciplinary and problem-focused, and seek to understand a problem from the perspective of the people most affected, which requires an anthropological sensibility and an appreciation of different social-cultural framings of problems. Thus, the course itself is problem-focused. It takes five central fields, which human security has drawn from and influenced – human rights, humanitarian studies, feminist and gender studies, mediation and conflict resolution, and development – and uses foundational theories and applications in those fields to bring a human security lens to better understand and address current problems in Latin America. The course is also inter-disciplinary and involves readings in anthropology, political science, law, international relations, security studies, humanitarian studies, public health and trauma, conflict resolution, feminist/gender studies, economics, environmental studies, and history.
DHP P298: CONFLICT IN AFRICA
During this course, students should gain a deeper understanding of the nature of contemporary violent conflict in Africa. Students will be expected to master the key theoretical approaches to violence in Africa, and to become familiar with a number of important case studies. The focus is on the origins and nature of violence, rather than policy responses and solutions. The course is inter-disciplinary and involves readings in political science, international relations, and social anthropology, while also touching on economics, environmental studies, and history.
DHP 300-399: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Directed reading and research for credit, providing an opportunity for qualified students to pursue the study of particular problems within the discipline of Diplomacy, History, and Politics under the personal guidance of a member of faculty. The course may be assigned to a Field of Study according to the topic selected. By consent of the professor and petition.
DHP 400: READING AND RESEARCH
Noncredit directed reading and research in preparation for PhD comprehensive examination or dissertation research and writing on the subjects within this division. By consent of the professor.
IR CPT: CURRICULAR PRACTICAL TRAINING
Summer study and Internship for Fletcher MALD and MIB students who do not hold U.S. work authorization and who choose to engage in off-campus work or internship experiences in the United States. Experiential learning and application of academic experiences are standard components of a two-year master’s level international affairs program. Requirements include successful completion of the Professional Development Program, mandatory attendance at two lectures, the internship and a presentation and Executive Summary at the conclusion of the internship. PhD students in the dissertation phase of their program will be eligible for up to 11 months of curricular practical training provided that they enroll in a .25 credit independent study under the supervision of their dissertation director. The course will be graded and based on a paper submitted by the student based on their internship experiences and the relationship to their PhD research. Students are eligible one time only during their degree program. Available only for F-1 visa holders. Please consult with the Registrar’s Office for more information.